Mission Statement

The Pitt Rivers Museum celebrates human ingenuity and creative skill.
It is committed to bringing its world-wide collections to public attention,
encouraging the sharing of knowledge, and inspiring deeper understanding
amongst people of all cultures, ages, and abilities.

Committee for the Pitt Rivers Museum as of 1 October 2001

Dr J. Landers (Chairman)
The Vice-Chancellor (Sir Colin Lucas)
The Senior Proctor (Professor D. Womersley)
The Junior Proctor (Professor G. Walford)
The Assessor (Mr B. Ward-Perkins)
Dr J. A. Bennett (Museum of the History of Science)
Dr C. Brown (Ashmolean Museum)
Professor B. Cunliffe (Institute of Archaeology)
Dr C. Gosden (Pitt Rivers Museum)
Professor A. Goudie (School of Geography)
Professor B. J. Mack (British Museum)
Dr M. O’Hanlon (Pitt Rivers Museum)
Professor D. Parkin (Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology)
Professor K. Thomson (Oxford University Museum of Natural History)
Ms J. Vitmayer (Horniman Museum)

The Committee for the Pitt Rivers Museum, having received from the Director the following report for the period 1 August 2001 to 31 July 2002, presented it as its report to Congregation

Director’s Introduction
I am still waiting for a year I can report to have been an uneventful one marked by steady but quiet progress. Principal highlights—in a year in which staff efforts verged at times on the hyperactive—included substantial developments in the areas of access, collections management, premises shift, and innovatory research, all underpinned by success in raising external grants.

In terms of access, the two-year Heritage Lottery Access Fund grant, held jointly with the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, got thoroughly into its stride. Full details are reported in the relevant section of this report, but the combined efforts of Ann Nicol (funded through the HLAF grant), Andy McLellan (funded by the HLAF with help from the Museum’s Friends), in conjunction with Kate White, and supported by a host of volunteers and helpers, produced a marked increase in the number of visitors to the Museum (up 13% to 139,461). And, we hope, in their diversity, though until the results from the research component of the HLAF grant are in, we cannot evaluate the success of the energetic efforts made on this front.

In the realm of collections management and ICT, we saw the close of the final year of the grant from the Designation Challenge Fund, and two major achievements. First, the process of computerizing all the Museum’s primary accession records was completed (very considerably exceeding the targets we had set ourselves), and the new database was brought online through the redesigned Museum web site. Secondly, the permanent redisplay of Body Arts, curated by Jeremy Coote and Jenny Peck and mounted by the technical services team, was opened in a run of previously empty cases running the length of the north wall of the lower gallery. The exhibition (which features more than 1300 artefacts) retains the traditional density of the Museum’s displays but achieves more visual interest through the three-dimensionality of the display technique and the use of photographs and colours. It has proved as popular as its curators hoped it would be.
Bringing these projects in on time will have been influential in the Museum’s success in the second round of Designation Challenge Fund awards. We learned in July that we had been awarded one of the larger grants nationally for our bid for the ‘Court Project’. This seventeen-month project, commencing October 2002, will involve a team working through all the cases in the Museum’s court, transferring information on artefact labels to the new database, improving fixings and fittings, and refining the locations’ index. What we suspect made this project especially attractive to the Designation Challenge Fund is that it also entails the appointment of an Access Officer, who will work alongside the team, preparing interpretative material on the displays and giving a public face to this vital collections-management work. More generally, the Pitt Rivers Museum, like many others, owes a great debt of gratitude to the Designation Challenge Fund, and to Resource who manage it, for everything we have achieved with the injections of support they have provided  
The year also saw considerable activity on the premises front. As reported last year, the University’s success in acquiring funds to rebuild on the St Cross site meant that the Museum’s conservation laboratory and textile store, which only moved there in 1999, was asked to move on once more. The best home that could be found for it was the Balfour Galleries in the Banbury Road. In consequence, and sadly, these had to be closed as a facility open to the public during museum hours. The site will be relaunched as a music, textile, and conservation centre, open to research visitors and members of the public by appointment. Conservation staff, led by Birgitte Speake and assisted by technical services staff, had the somewhat depressing task of planning and executing this further move.
As I have noted before, the Museum will remain vulnerable to such forced shifts of premises until its estate is consolidated on a more manageable number of sites. Pleasingly, much background work took place over the year to this end. Following a space audit by an external consultant that recommended such a consolidation, the Museum appointed an architectural practice to investigate whether a new building on the Museum’s near-derelict ‘Green Shed’ site, to the south of the main galleries, could accommodate the functions carried out on the two Banbury Road sites, as well as providing the additional public, research, and collections-management facilities the main site still sorely lacks. We are very grateful here, for his time, thoroughness and patience, to Charles MacKeith of Ian Simpson Architects, whose plans show that it is possible to consolidate all the Museum’s outlying premises (with the exception of the Osney store) in a new extension to the main galleries. Intriguingly, Charles’s researches in the Bodleian reveal that the footprint of such an extension coincides precisely with the Pitt Rivers Museum as originally planned in the 1880s, before cutbacks forced the construction of a smaller building. The Museum must now take this scheme through the necessarily exhaustive University approvals for such a new building, as well as endeavouring to raise the funds for it externally.
Innovatory research is not a distraction to such a project, but an essential underpinning of it. The kind of major funding that we will need to raise externally will only go to an institution that demonstrates that it is at the cutting edge, both academically and in terms of responding to its constituencies, whether they are local visitors, international scholars, or members of the ‘source communities’ from which the artefacts in its collections derive. One example of this capacity was the award this year to Jeremy Coote of £51,000 from the Arts and Humanities Research Board for his Pacific Pathways project. This innovatory project entails asking a number of artists, scholars, and members of source communities to create their own virtual pathways through and beyond the Museum’s web site devoted to the Forster collection of Pacific artefacts from Cook's second voyage (1772–1775). This AHRB grant (which is running in parallel with that awarded to Laura Peers last year for repatriating information about Beatrice Blackwood’s North American photographs) also reinforces our sense of indebtedness to the AHRB itself, which contributes nearly £600,000 a year to the Museum through its core-funding scheme. Equally significant has been the award in July 2002 of £326,000 from the Economic and Social Research Council to Chris Gosden and myself for a three-year project entitled ‘The Relational Museum’. This project, which will start in October 2002, and will be more fully reported on next year, is in part an attempt to find a new model for ethnographic museums in just the way that we will have to do if we are to convince governmental and other funders of the merits of the Museum’s scheme for an extension on its main site.
Many other significant achievements and debts are more fully recorded in the body of the report: for example, Elizabeth Edwards’ notable exhibition Acts of Faith, displayed in the Ashmolean Museum by kind permission of the Director, Dr Christopher Brown; and the refurbishing of the Museum’s logo, corporate style and web site, co-ordinated by Kate White and implemented by the Museum’s tireless ICT Officer, Haas Ezzet. Thanks must also be offered to the Museum’s growing number of dedicated volunteers. Membership of the volunteer guiding service has almost doubled during this year, following a recruitment drive and a new training programme put in place by Andy McLellan. Together, Jean Flemming, Frances Martyn, Rosemary Lee, Joan Shaw, Marlene Hinshelwood, Barbara Topley, Natasha Montgomery, Margaret Dyke, and Alan Lacey contributed more than 500 hours of their time to guide school groups visiting the Museum, as well as giving up many more hours as part of their ongoing training. Thanks are also due to the members of staff and volunteers—including Patrica Li, Vicki Lam, Linda Teesdale, Lizzie Quarini, Liz Yardley, Rowena Mulholland, Lindsey Smith, Felicity Wood, Anne Phythian-Adams, José Allen, Keith Goda, and Margret Jenks—who assist with such weekend activities as Pitt Stops and Family Friendly events.
The Museum is also pleased to be able to thank the following for their voluntary help during the year: Emily Stokes-Rees, for her assistance with preparing material for the body arts exhibition (and much else); Philip Grover, for sterling work on the photograph collections, especially on the Rivière collection; and, as always, Audrey Smith and Ruth Wickett, who this year completed a catalogue of the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century print collection so that records for these objects are now available online. The Museum would also like to record its appreciation of the work of conservation intern Katerina Koukouli, who proved to be a skilled and valuable member of the team, as well as acknowledging the assistance of Darren J. Mann, of the Hope Entomological Collections, with museum pest identification.
Finally, I must record the Museum’s regret at the retirement after a period of ill-health of the Head of Technical Services, Bob Rivers, who had worked for the Museum since 1954. Quite aside from the immense service he rendered over this period, which was broken only by his period of National Service, Bob became the corporate memory of the institution. He will be greatly missed.

Access of all kinds—physical, intellectual, sensory, and cultural—remains high on the Museum’s agenda. This section outlines some of the key developments that took place this year, but cannot describe more than a proportion of the work that was carried out.
From September, public opening hours were extended on weekdays and Saturdays. The Museum now opens for booked groups from 10.00 a.m. to 12.00 p.m. and to the general public from 12.00 to 4.30 p.m. Monday to Saturday, and on Sundays from 2.00 to 4.30 p.m. This change has been of particular benefit to booked school groups visiting the Museum in the morning, as they are now able to extend their visits into the afternoon. The apparently small change in opening hours has in fact necessitated significant changes in working practices, not just for front-of-house staff, but also for collections-management, conservation, and technical-services staff who had to ensure that improving access for visitors did not reduce the level of service offered to visiting researchers. Their willingness to accommodate this change reflects the genuine commitment to access on the part of all the Museum’s staff.
Also in September, the Museum began the gradual implementation of the new logo and corporate style, including the redesign of the web site. Created in house by ICT Officer Haas Ezzet, the new web site has attracted considerable praise from a variety of users for its clear, easy-to-use layout and object-orientated approach. We are also pleased to report that ‘virtual visitor’ numbers increased by a huge 49% during the year.
In Spring 2002, work began on the development of new performance standards for front-of-house staff covering all areas of their role as the public face of the Museum. Regular weekly training sessions have enabled staff to participate in setting the standards for their work. These have included sessions with outside trainers on such aspects as personal security and disability awareness. A new ‘Visitor Services Statement’ has been introduced, together with feedback forms, as have new staff reporting procedures. Front-of-house staff have also participated in developing a new dress code, designed to ensure that they are clearly identifiable, without appearing unfriendly or unapproachable.
Improving access for disabled visitors is a key aim for the coming years. During the course of this year much has been done to lay solid foundations for this work. The Museum’s existing disability action plan has been revised, signage in the Museum has been improved, a new booklet for disabled visitors is almost ready for publication, and all staff have been offered disability awareness training. The year 2003 has been designated ‘European Year of People with a Disability’ and the Pitt Rivers hopes to meet this challenge with a major new project to tackle the needs of its disabled audiences. It is hoped to be able to report positively on this in next year’s report.

HLAF Project
The preliminary work of the Heritage Lottery Access Fund (HLAF) project ‘Including Everybody’ was outlined in last year’s report. This two-year joint project is aimed at attracting new audiences to the Pitt Rivers Museum and the Oxford University Museum of Natural History on a wider and more socially inclusive basis. Building on the work reported last year, staff have continued to tackle this challenge in various ways. Many actual and potential partnerships have been built over the last year, with Oxford City and Oxfordshire County Council employees, community workers, and people working in a wide variety of other organizations.
Two specific areas demanding attention were: (1) the need to raise basic levels of awareness by marketing in the local area, and (2) the infrequency of the extremely popular family-targeted Museum activities. As a result, ‘Family Friendly’ was developed as an ongoing programme of family activities run every Sunday afternoon, throughout the year, staffed by volunteers. As well as proving very popular with visitors, it has been used as a route for very specific targeting of new audiences. This has taken the form of geographical targeting of poorer areas of Oxford and targeting non-English speaking local residents. The success of this and all the other activities of the project are being monitored via the ongoing visitor survey.
Many successful events and activities have taken place, both within the Museum and in the community. These have included workshops for adults with learning disabilities, outreach—such as hands-on activities and talks in residential centres for older people and for mental health groups, and the development of the special temporary exhibition and associated activity programme, Objects Talk. The latter, which will open in October 2002, will explore the many ways that objects ‘speak’ to people. With the involvement and imagination of Oxford’s communities, the exhibition will celebrate the diversity of stories and meanings that individuals bring to the Museum’s collections. At a series of workshops, beginning in January 2002, contributors from local community groups as diverse as the Asian Lunch Club, Asylum Welcome Youth Groups, the Indian Union, Florence Park History Club, East Oxford Seniors, and the Oxford Artists Network have chosen and commented on objects from the existing displays. Their interpretations have ranged from the entirely personal to the historical and cultural. The objects chosen will be exhibited, alongside the thoughts they inspired. The exhibition will be a very visible reflection of Oxford’s diverse population while, importantly, its development has facilitated visits to the Museum from local residents who had not visited previously.
It was recognized before the project began that to initiate sustainable action to improve access to the public, the project would need to assist in changing the ethos of both museums. By its existence alone, the project has made some inroads in this area, but more tangible elements have included persuading staff to get even more involved in specific public activities, setting up opportunities for training in such areas as disability awareness, and a significant effort towards organizational change. This latter effort included a staff survey and culminated in a staff day on ‘Visitors and Vision’ to discuss access issues and Museum priorities. All staff were invited to the session, which was devised and led by Ann Nicol and Kate White with valuable input from external consultant Alison James. The results of this corporate discussion will be used to underpin a new Access and Learning Policy to be developed in the latter part of 2002.
The obligation to disseminate interim and final results is, of course, an integral part of the project. In particular, Ann Nicol, the Audience Development Researcher, has not only presented papers at a wide variety of professional conferences and training days but she also been involved in initiatives aimed at promoting future access work in the Museum, including applications for future funding. An account of the successes (and failures) of the project and its activities will be presented in a final report to be produced in December 2002. A summary will be provided in the next annual report.

Education Services
The number of school visits the Museum can accommodate is limited by restrictions applied by the University Museum of Natural History, mainly due to pressure on their toilet facilities, the only ones available for visitors to the Pitt Rivers. The aim of the schools education service at the Pitt Rivers, therefore, is to improve the quality of visits rather than their quantity.
It has been decided to concentrate on two ways of improving visit quality. First, through the creation of ‘workshop’ space in the Museum, which it is hoped will be achieved next year by setting aside space in the special exhibition area as part of the presentation of the Objects Talk exhibition. The success of this will be evaluated. And secondly, through offering a wider variety of taught sessions, which can be achieved through increasing the number of volunteer guides in order to be able to market handling sessions, guided visits, and short talks for schools. Work was begun on this second strand during the reporting year. The recruitment of new members for the volunteer guiding service took place during the autumn of 2001, and in October a new training programme for the guides was put in place.
A major new education section was also developed for the Museum’s web site during the second half of 2001. The site was designed to meet the requirements outlined by teachers in a survey of school groups visiting the Museum carried out earlier in the year. Teachers had expressed a preference for a quick, no-frills site that gave them the fastest possible access to materials to help them plan their visits and download teaching information. The resources were made available in formats that allowed teachers to adapt the materials to their specific needs. Fact-sheets, prepared by members of the Museum’s staff on specific areas of the collections, have been made available online to meet another identified need of secondary-school teachers. Copies of the trails used by the guiding service, primarily aimed at younger children, have also been made available to assist teachers from visiting primary schools. Resources are now available across a range of subject areas for all key stages of the national curriculum. Teachers from visiting and non-visiting schools were asked to test the site before it went live early in 2002 and changes have continued to be made following feedback received during the year. Evaluation of the success of these initiatives will be based on the numbers of groups signing up for taught sessions rather than the numbers of schools visiting the Museum. If demand rises there will be a knock-on effect on general numbers of booked groups. Further resources, to be made available on the Museum web site, will then need to be developed.
Since March 2002, an Education Assistant, Oliver Douglas, has been employed to undertake the work required to prepare for the Objects Talk exhibition. The development of this exhibition has allowed education staff to build up resources for lifelong learning, to complement the opportunities we provide for younger learners and school groups, and to strengthen the handling collection. In recognition of the growing size and key role of this collection, storage space within the Museum was allocated for it, ensuring easy accessibility and maximum use.
The Museum’s Pitt Stop activities for families continued to be held on the first Saturday of each month. Subjects ranged from Chinese lanterns to puppet making. These, together with the school-holiday activities organized by the education team, are proving increasingly popular with local families. The activity space that will be created next year will benefit the children taking part in these out-of-school activities as much as those visiting in educational groups.

Visitor Numbers
The total number of visitors to the Museum was 139,461. This represents a 13% increase on the previous year, up from 123,064. Of these visitors, 19,593 came in booked educational groups including language schools, again showing an increase on last year’s total of 18,541. The Museum’s marketing policy continues to be one of increasing visit quality, rather than aiming to increase visit quantity. Nevertheless, it is gratifying to see the Museum so busy. The summer months in particular witnessed an obvious increase in the number of language-school students compared to the previous year (when the foot-and-mouth crisis had a deterrent effect on both overseas students and tourists). In addition, there were 13,272 visitors to the Museum’s Acts of Faith exhibition, held at the Ashmolean but curated by the Pitt Rivers Museum.
There was an enormous increase in the number of visitors to the Museum’s web site. The number of ‘unique visitors’ for the year rose to 40,052 from 26,863 in the previous year: an increase of 49% in one year. Not only are more people visiting the site, they are making far more use of its contents. The total number of hits made by these visitors more than tripled to 1,817,965, from 537,000 in the previous year. There is no doubt that the major initiatives to create the new education section and to put the Museum’s databases online have paid dividends. The Museum will seek to build on this success with further developments in the coming year.
‘Virtual access’ to the Museum and its collections also continues to be provided to many others via commercial filming in the galleries. During the year there was filming by Planet Wild Productions for a Channel 4 documentary presented by Mat Fraser, a disabled actor, exploring perceptions of disability, including Victorian classifications and categorizations of human difference. The American TV company, ABC News, also used the Museum for an interview with the writer Philip Pullman, whose award-winning books draw inspiration from the Museum’s collections. The displays have even been used as inspiration for set designs for the first Harry Potter film.
Events and Activities

On Sunday 20 April 2002, a special ‘Body Arts’ afternoon was organized to celebrate the opening of the new sequence of displays. Members of staff who had worked on the displays spent the afternoon in the gallery talking to members of the public about the new displays. Among other attractions, videos were shown, books and other materials were made available, and a number of experts and practitioners also generously gave of their time to talk to the public and explain the traditions and processes represented in the displays. The Museum would particularly like to thank Dr Sarah Adams, Professor Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, and Dolar Dave for participating in this event.
Events during Museums and Galleries Month in May began with a nationwide late-night opening on 15 May. The evening was designed to appeal to adult visitors and offered a chance for a special evening viewing of the new Body Arts displays, with a number of the same features that were available on the Body Arts afternoon. The number of visitors was, however, disappointingly low. Anecdotal feedback indicates that the one-off nature of the event and the choice of a Friday evening may have been important factors contributing to the low attendance.
In stark contrast, the Museum’s participation in the celebrations at the end of the month to celebrate the Queen’s Golden Jubilee were a great success. The Museum participated in Oxford Museum Council’s ‘Jubilee Collectors Trail’ involving many museums from across the county. On 1 June the Museum’s usual Pitt Stop took place in Broad Street where ‘The Big Weave’ was the Museum’s contribution to the City’s street carnival. Then, on 3 June, the Museum was selected as the starting-point for Oxford’s contribution to the national drumming beacon. Broadcast live by BBC South television and Radio Oxford, the beacon (comprising several local drumming groups) began with African rhythms played across the galleries of the Museum, progressed through the University Museum of Natural History to the front lawn, and culminated—as it did throughout the country—in the massed singing of Lennon and McCartney’s ‘All You Need is Love’, orchestrated by local composer Nick Bicât. The concert in the Museum that followed attracted more than 1000 people during the course of the afternoon and generated many requests for more music in the galleries in the future.
Away from the Museum in July, members of the Museum’s staff and Friends participated in educational activities at the site of a Romano-British amphitheatre and ritual complex at Frilford, South Oxfordshire where Chris Gosden was undertaking a second season of archaeological fieldwork. Excavation staff opened the site to the public each Sunday, providing guided tours of the site and demonstrating the techniques of excavation and analysis used. Visitors were also given a chance to see finds from the excavation. Additional activities were organized for the National Archaeology Days at the end of the month, attracting many local people to the site.

Permanent Displays
The third year of the Resource/DCMS Designation Challenge Fund Redisplay Programme produced major improvements to three areas of the permanent public displays. The new exhibition devoted to Body Arts opened to the public on 20 April 2002. This new sequence of permanent displays along the north wall of the Museum’s lower gallery focuses on the variety of ways people choose to alter their bodies, and includes objects related to tattooing, piercing, hair-dressing, head-binding, and many other practices. More than 1300 objects are included in the new displays, maintaining the Museum’s unique style of dense, artefact-rich displays. Recently acquired items, such as the tools used by a tattoo artist in East Oxford and a breast implant donated by a local hospital, are displayed alongside more traditionally ‘ethnographic’ material collected throughout the Museum’s history, including tattooing equipment from Burma (Myanmar), Sarawak, Tamil Nadu, and Nagaland. In addition some 50 related objects have been redisplayed in the cases opposite. In a new development for the Museum, the displays are complemented by the provision of additional information outside the cases themselves in an information area at the north-east corner of the gallery. Here information is provided in the form of laminated information sheets, spiral-bound files providing information on each object in each of the displays, and a small selection of accessible books. Visitor reaction to this new way of providing information is being evaluated.
A new Introductory Display was created close to the entrance to the Museum. This uses photographs, texts, and some 25 objects to illustrate and explain the unique cultural and historic importance of the Museum and its displays. Additions were also made to the new display of the important collection of material from Benin in West Africa. An additional 12 objects were incorporated into the displays, while the background information provided was evaluated and enhanced.
In October 2001 the Museum was forced to take the difficult decision to close to the general public the display areas at the Balfour Galleries on Banbury Road. This decision was made necessary by the University’s decision to commence work on new building at the St Cross site, thus demolishing the site occupied by conservation. No alternative accommodation could be found, and so the Museum was forced to consider a remodelling of existing space to make room for the laboratory and the important reserve collections of textiles and footwear.
In order to achieve this, the Hunter–Gatherer displays in the Balfour Galleries have been dismantled. During August 2002, work will take place to make the alterations necessary to create the new collections storage in this space. It is most regrettable that display space has been lost, but the Balfour Galleries have never achieved their potential as a visitor attraction, positioned as they are some distance from the city centre. We are pleased, however, that the Music Makers gallery has been preserved. It is hoped that once work has been completed, a newly revitalized centre for the study of textiles and music will open in autumn 2002. This will include excellent conservation facilities, greatly improved storage for many of the collections, and much improved facilities for visiting researchers and specialist interest groups. The Museum is committed to providing more up-to-date archaeological displays on the main site as soon as funding is available.

Special Exhibitions
The major special exhibition in the main museum, Transformations: The Art of Recycling, continued throughout the year. Having opened in March 2000, Transformations is now due to close in September 2002. In recent years it has been unusual for one of the Museum’s special exhibitions to remain open this long. However, with current staffing levels it is not possible for the Museum simultaneously to mount major redisplay programmes, like that which resulted in the new Body Arts displays, and a major special exhibition programme. As usual, however, Museum staff did attempt to square this particular circle again this year.
The Museum’s major exhibition during the year, Acts of Faith: Contemporary Brazilian Photography, was held at the Ashmolean Museum from 25 October 2001 to 3 February 2002. Curated by Elizabeth Edwards and her Brazilian co-curator Anna Carboncini, Acts of Faith was part of a series of high-profile Brazilian exhibitions, sponsored by BrasilConnects. The exhibition explored the boundaries between anthropological and documentary photography and presented the work of five Brazilian photographers, José Bassit, Christian Cravo, Adenor Gondim, Tiago Santana, and Antonio Sagesse, who had worked on the theme of pilgrimage and the visual culture of religion. It worked extremely well, both in its own terms and as a complement to the Ashmolean’s own exhibition Opulence and Devotion: Brazilian Baroque Art. While the complications of a project involving so much collaboration between parties spread across continents put a major strain on Museum staff, the exhibition was very well received and had national press coverage of the kind not often enjoyed by exhibitions at the Museum.
In addition, the Museum continued its active programme of mounting smaller special displays relating to current research by members of staff, student art work inspired by the Museum, and installations by professional artists. Games, a display by students from the Foundation Course in Art and Design at Buckinghamshire and Chilterns University College, High Wycombe, reported on last year, closed in August 2001. The exhibition Stored and Sorted, a display of work by Art Foundation students at Oxfordshire School of Art and Design, Banbury, also reported on last year, was extended to November 2001.
Our Man in Ladakh: Himalayan Photographs by Colonel R. C. F Schomberg opened in September 2001 to coincide with the tenth conference of the International Association of Ladakh Studies being held in Oxford. Following a distinguished career in the British Army, Colonel Reginald Schomberg (1880–1958) became a writer and travelled throughout Central Asia and the Himalayas. The display featured sixteen rare photographs taken in Ladakh, Western Himalayas, in the 1940s, including images of the Ladakhi royal family and views of key sites in the region. Our Man in Ladakh closed in July 2002.
Return to Sender: Where Do You Come From?, described as ‘an exhibition for visitors, by visitors’, opened in September 2001 as part of the HLAF project. Return to Sender is conceived of as a growing display of small perspex boxes in which contributors place an object to illustrate their answer to the question ‘Where do you come from?’, together with an explanation of their choice. Already the exhibition provides a fascinating insight into human identity, seen from a wide variety of different perspectives. It will continue to evolve until the end of the project in December 2002.
The Hopkins Collection: Artefacts from the Canadian Plains, 1840–42, opened in January 2002. In the early 1840s, Edward Hopkins travelled across western Canada with Sir George Simpson, governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company. Hopkins returned with collections of First Nations and Metis artefacts that illustrate both Native life and contact between Europeans and Native peoples. A small special exhibition in the lower gallery showcased four fragile pieces from the collection, which have never before been exhibited in Oxford.
Object Parts? From the Lighting Store, which opened on 8 July is a case-display by local artist Michelle Stevenson, a final-year student at the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art. The exhibition is designed to draw attention to some of the curatorial and conservation issues behind the Museum’s displays. Object Parts? is scheduled to close in September 2002.

Collections Management and Care
Reserve Collections
It is difficult to imagine that it was only during the previous reporting year that the Museum’s store at Osney Mead was added to the Museum’s computer network, as the improvements that have been made possible through onsite access to the Museum’s databases have been enormous. Work by collections management and conservation staff to upgrade storage of collections has been greatly enhanced by the ability to check and physically number an object before it is placed in its new location, this location also being entered on the database. Work this year focused on completing the reorganization of the shield collection. A number of important individual collections, previously stored separately, were redistributed. The material in these collections is thus now kept in better conditions and is more accessible to both Museum staff and visiting researchers. A major clear-out of non-Museum material, which had accumulated over the years at Osney, also took place during Autumn 2001.
Gradual improvements were made in the storage and organization of the photographic and manuscript collections throughout the course of the year. The small film collection has been a cause of increasing concern, as the Museum has no adequate provision to curate such material with its very special needs. The photograph and manuscript section has now taken on the problem, and considerable time was spent during the year attempting to find workable low-cost and long-term solutions to the proper curation of these collections. This has added an extra burden on an already over-stretched department. The Museum still only has sufficient funding for two part-time members of staff to process, research, care for, and give access to approximately 180,000 artefacts now within the remit of the photograph and manuscript collections. This chronic understaffing is a major problem and is now especially so as a number of the externally funded projects, for which the Museum has been so successful in attracting funding, draw very heavily on the photograph and manuscript collections. While these projects represent very positive engagements with the collections, the lack of infrastructure makes it difficult to cope with the ever-increasing demand. In consequence, staff time is not necessarily used in the most cost-effective way. This problem remains to be resolved.

A list of the new acquisitions during the year is given in Annex B.
A number of important donations were made to the photographic collections this year. Prime among these was the collection of photographs of the late Hugh Richardson, the distinguished Tibetan scholar. These comprise a very major accession, numbering some 18,000 negatives, with associated prints, slides, and documentation. The executors of Richardson’s estate selected the Pitt Rivers Museum as the repository for this material because of its high standards of photographic curatorship, intellectual engagement with visual materials, and strong Tibetanist interests. With the addition of this collection to the existing holdings of Tibet photographs, the Museum can now claim to hold one of the most important collections of Tibetan historical photographs in the world.
Another major donation comprised the fieldwork materials of the late Dr Darrell Posey. These contain rich data on the ethnobotany of the Amazon region, especially Kayapo. It is hoped that the material will become a lasting monument to Dr Posey in Oxford, where he did so much of his work. The Museum is grateful to his family and the executors of his estate for this important acquisition. Among other important acquisitions were the field notes and photographs of Natalie Tobert, who worked in northern Sudan in the 1980s. A number of ‘field’ collections were also made for the Museum during the year. In each case, the collection was made after intensive consultation between the collector and Museum staff. Among these collections were: a series of photographs made by Anna Hoare, exploring the social space and settlement of Amaokwe-Item, an Ibo community in Nigeria; a field collection of ornaments from the Luo of Kenya, made for the Museum by Gilbert Oteyo; and a field collection of modern Maori ornaments, made for the Museum by Peter Gathercole. A further eight items from the Dumas-Egerton collection of material from Benin were also added to the collection currently on long-term loan to the Museum.
Some previously unaccessioned objects and photographs were processed during the year. Much of this was found during redisplay work in the Museum, while other material was found during ongoing work at Osney and elsewhere. The occasional discovery of such unaccessioned material reinforces the need for a comprehensive inventory of the collections.
The Museum’s active loans programme is an important aspect of its work in providing greater access to some of its collections. The Museum was pleased to be able to assist various museums with their special exhibitions during the year. There were a total of three new loans from the object collections during the year, all overseas. In total, twelve artefacts were loaned, four of them twice. There were no loans from the photograph and manuscript collections.
In March, eight Neolithic stone tools from the Channel Islands were loaned to Jersey Museums for an exhibition at La Hougue Bie Museum; they are to be returned in November. In April, four Ainu artefacts from the collections of Neil Gordon Munro were loaned to the Foundation for Research and Promotion of Ainu Culture for the exhibition A Scottish Physician’s View: Craft and Spirit of the Ainu from N. G. Munro Collection. This exhibition was shown at the Historical Museum of Hokkaido, Sapporo, Japan from 26 April to 9 June and at the Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Cultural History, Yokahama, Japan from 27 July to 1 September. The material is due to be returned in September. Two Australian Aboriginal clubs loaned to the South Australian Museum, Adelaide in March 2000 were due to be returned in March 2002. At the request of the borrowing institution the loan was extended until January 2003. Among current longer-term loans, nine objects loaned to the new National Museum of Australia, Canberra in March 2001 are due to be returned in March 2003.
The Museum’s retrospective computerization programme, funded by the Resource/DCMS Designation Challenge Fund, was completed this year. All the data from the Museum’s original accessions books, recording donations, purchases, and loans since the Museum was founded in 1884, has now been transferred on to the computerized databases. The success of this project has revolutionized the Museum’s ability to provide rapid and detailed answers to visitors’ enquiries on the collections, and to record new information on them more efficiently. The programme exceeded all the targets set in terms of time and quantity: nearly 200,000 new  entries were made over the two-and-a-half years of the project, and more than 100,000 existing entries were enhanced.
The completion of this project allowed the Museum to take a major step forward by making its databases available online in January 2002. Thus this essential information on the collections became instantly available for research to virtual visitors around the world. The feedback from users has been extremely positive, and this initiative has undoubtedly contributed to the significant increase in use of the Museum’s web site. Evaluation of the databases by a range of users has provided information that will enable their user-friendliness to be improved during the next reporting year.
Work continued on recataloguing a number of important collections throughout the year. Dr Sarah Milliken continued her work on the Museum’s extensive Egyptian Palaeolithic collections with a view to their publication in 2003. Towards the end of the reporting year, Dr Anne Haour and Mr Chris Wingfield began work on a project, funded by a grant from the James A. Swan Fund, focused on the Museum’s extensive Southern African stone artefact collections. This project, which continued into the next reporting year, has two major components: the reordering and repacking of the collections themselves, with the concomitant checking and updating of the computerized records, and extensive documentary research on the history of the collections and the collectors. A further project, funded by a small grant from the British Academy, to enhance the records for the Museum’s collection of artefacts from the Luo of Kenya was also begun at the end of the year. This work is being carried out by Gilbert Oteyo, under the supervision of Jeremy Coote, and will be reported on next year.
Major inroads were made into the backlog of cataloguing that needs to be done in the photograph and manuscript collections. Much of this has been made possible by small amounts of funding that have enabled the employment of short-term contract staff to address the backlog collection by collection. Chris Morton completed a catalogue of Robert Hottot’s photographic collection, Meghan O’Brien completed an inventory of the Peter Rivière collection, and Krystyna Cech completed a catalogue of the Staunton material from Tibet. Progress has also been made on cataloguing collections from China, New Zealand, and the Pacific. These developments demonstrate what can be achieved in concentrated bursts with relatively minor funding. Research has been intrinsic to all these cataloguing projects, enhancing knowledge of the photograph collections, not only in terms of the content of the images but also in terms of their history of production and consumption. The availability of the database online has made a major impact with a generally broader usage of the collections as potential research visitors have the opportunity to explore the catalogues at their leisure.
In total, there were 21,122 new entries added to the Museum’s object database during the year, together with 122,707 significant enhancements to existing records. In addition, 11,490 new entries were added to the photograph database, together with 50,496 significant enhancements to existing records. Of the total number of enhancements made to the two databases, 119,582 were by members of the Designation Challenge Fund project team.

When the Conservation department and the textile and footwear reserve collections moved to the rifle range on the St Cross site in 1999, the Museum was aware that the site would only provide a temporary home. However, as reported previously, fundraising for a new Social Sciences building to stand on that site proceeded much faster than expected, so that less than three years after the last move the conservation team were faced with the prospect of more upheaval. The search for a new site for the lab and collections storage dominated the year. As reported above, it was finally decided that the conservation laboratory and the textile/footwear collections should be housed at the Balfour Galleries.
The removal of the textile and footwear collections took place in July 2002. Most of the existing display cases in the old hunter–gatherer gallery were refurbished to be used for visible storage for some of the larger textiles and for the headgear collections (which had previously been stored at Osney, but are now reunited with the other clothing collections). Adjacent to this area a large textile study room is being created for use by researchers, other visitors, and conservation staff.
The new conservation laboratory will be created from an area previously used as a clean working area. It is hoped that 95% of the furnishings from the old laboratory will be reused in the new set-up. One benefit of the new lab will be that conservation staff will be able to treat larger objects in a suitable space. Unfortunately, these objects will still have to be transported from the Museum. The area outside the conservation laboratory and the Music Makers Gallery will be kept free for public activities.
Despite moving laboratories, 1070 objects were conserved during the course of the year. More than 1000 of these were for the new Body Arts displays, while work was also begun on objects for the forthcoming Objects Talk exhibition. Other objects treated include material going on loan and objects found to have signs of old infestation. The high number of objects conserved reflects the department’s strict adherence to minimum intervention.
Katerina Koukouli joined the conservation team in October 2001 on an internship as part of her studies at University College London and became a valued member of the team. She researched deposits on Roman mirrors in the collections, as well as carrying out a project to analyse the deposits on one of the shrunken heads. The research concluded that the deposit was caused by old conservation treatments. Katerina also photographed all the footwear collections and scanned the images on to a CDRom for use by visiting researchers. Thanks to a Sharing Museum Skills Millennium Award, Moera Keeting from the Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter spent three weeks with the Museum’s conservation department. During this time she made great progress with upgrading the storage of the reserve collection of Nubian beads.
Despite the recent reroofing, conditions in the Museum continue to be far from ideal, with temperatures rising to uncomfortable levels at all times of year. Further consultation with the University Surveyors took place, but additional expert advice is needed. Concerns over low light levels in the Museum are ongoing, but until funding can be found to address the problem there is little more that can be done. Monitoring at the photographic and manuscript collections confirmed the need for upgrading of the air-conditioning unit to maintain the safety of the collections. It is hoped that this work can be carried out during the next reporting year.
As part of the Museum’s pest-management policy, all incoming collections (as well as many of the objects sold in the shop) were frozen before entering the main body of the museum. Pest surveys were completed in the main museum and the Balfour Galleries as well as at Osney. There was a significant reduction in the number of objects requiring treatment following these surveys. In spite of these positive findings, the precaution was taken of treating the areas in the Balfour Galleries to be used for the textile and footwear collections before they are relocated.

Research and Scholarship
Members of the Museum’s staff continue to be involved in numerous research projects both within and beyond the Museum. Some idea of the range of this work can be gained from the individual entries in Annex D: Staff Activities and Annex E: Staff Publications, as well as from Annex F: Museum Seminars. The Museum also contributes to the funding of research and scholarship through its administration of the James A. Swan Fund (see Annex G).

Each year, Museum staff attend and speak at a number of academic conferences. This year was no exception, with 54 conferences being attended and 34 papers delivered. Unusually, however, one area in which the Museum’s staff were particularly active this year was in the organization of academic conferences. In each case, it is worth noting, complementary exhibitions had been mounted as a focus for academic debate and for the entertainment of delegates.
In September, Clare Harris organized the tenth colloquium of the International Assocation for Ladakh Studies. The colloquium was attended by more than 90 delegates with a dozen participants from India, six of whom were Ladakhis. As part of the colloquium, Clare spoke about Walter Asboe’s collection of material from Ladakh in the Pitt Rivers Museum. All the participants had the opportunity to see the Museum’s special exhibition Our Man in Ladakh: Himalayan Photographs by Colonel R. C. F Schomberg, and the Ladakhi participants were also invited to visit the Museum’s photograph collections to view other images taken in Ladakh. The papers given at the conference are to be published in a volume edited by Clare Harris and Monisha Ahmed.
In connection with the Museum’s special exhibition Acts of Faith: Contemporary Brazilian Photography, the Museum ran a very successful study day at the Ashmolean in January—where, uniquely, the exhibition was held. This included a contribution from award-winning Brazilian photographer Leticia Valverdes, who spoke about making documentary photographs in a Brazilian context. As well as the study day, there was also an academic seminar, ‘Visuality and Religion in Brazil’, convened with the Centre for Brazilian Studies, in which a number of distinguished US, Brazilian, and British scholars gave papers.
In April the focus shifted to Rupert’s Land, for a conference organized by Laura Peers, which attracted 75 delegates, mainly from North America, to discuss the social history of the fur trade in that area. Two of the conference sessions focused specifically on the Hopkins Collection held at the Museum. All the participants had the opportunity to see the Museum’s special exhibition, The Hopkins Collection: Artefacts from the Canadian Plains, 1840–42, and six of the overseas delegates took the opportunity of being in Oxford to study other parts of the Museum’s collections.
In June, the colloquium ‘Body Arts and Modernity’ brought together 50 scholars to discuss the ways in which indigenous traditions of body art intersect with, are constituted through, or revitalized by modernity and modern practices. This colloquium, co-organized by Mike O’Hanlon and Elizabeth Ewart, of the University’s Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, was closely linked to the new permanent displays of Body Arts, which had opened in April and which delegates were able to see at a special conference reception.
Research Projects
Research is an integral part of many aspects of the Museum’s work, ranging from the work carried out into the Museum’s audiences as part of the HLAF project to the detailed investigations that are carried out as part of cataloguing and accessioning procedures. Museum staff are also in receipt of major research grants that enable the institution to stay at the cutting-edge of contemporary, particularly collections-based, research. This section introduces just some of the major research projects carried out by Museum staff during the year.
Laura Peers’s AHRB-funded ‘Kainai’ project focused on a collection of photographs taken by Beatrice Blackwood on the Blood Reserve in 1925 (see previous report) continued through the year. As a result of this work, a protocol agreement was signed in November 2001 by the Museum and the Mookaakin Cultural and Heritage Foundation of the Blood Tribe (Kainai Nation). With researcher Alison Brown, Laura Peers took copies of Blackwood’s photographs back to the tribe as part of this project and sought guidance from the Mookaakin Foundation, a voluntary organization established in 1998 to promote and preserve the culture of the Blood/Kainai people. Because First Nations peoples today wish to benefit from research carried out in their communities, such organizations facilitate culturally appropriate ways of working in Native communities and ensure that the rights and interests of the community as well as the researcher are protected. The protocol agreement states that everyone interviewed about the photographs will receive copies of tapes and transcripts; that copies of the photographs, tapes, and transcripts will be deposited with the tribe; and that Foundation members will have the opportunity to see and comment on drafts of anything written about the research. In return, Foundation members agree to facilitate the research by assisting with interviews, and by  providing guidance on appropriate cultural protocols and behaviour. It is hoped that this agreement and the research project itself will lead to better understanding between researchers and the Kainai people. A book being prepared by Peers and Brown about Kainai responses to the photographs will help to educate museum staff in the United Kingdom about the importance of archival photographs and museum artefacts to First Nations people today, while the photographs will also be used for developing school curriculum materials to teach Kainai history on the Reserve.
In May, Jeremy Coote and project officer Jenny Peck began work on ‘Pacific Pathways: Multiplying Contexts for the Forster (“Cook-Voyage”) Collection at the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford’. Again, this is funded by the AHRB, this time from their Innovations Awards Scheme. The project has two main aspects. First, to develop a technical facility that will allow anyone with access to the web to create their own electronic ‘pathways’ through and beyond the Forster Collection web site, adding their own texts, images, sound and video clips, and links to other web pages. To launch that facility, ten artists, curators, and scholars are being commissioned to create the first pathways. Secondly, the project will also result in the addition to the site and its databases, of more historical and contextual information and illustrative material, research into which has been ongoing since 1994 and will continue well into the future. The project will be completed in April 2003.
In July 2002, Chris Gosden and Mike O’Hanlon were awarded more than £300,000 from the ESRC for ‘The Relational Museum’ a major new research project focusing on the Museum’s collections. The project, which will start in October 2002, will explore the history of the Museum’s collections and the links between the individuals and groups that created them between 1884, the date of the foundation of the Museum, and 1945, the start of the post-colonial period. A museum’s collections are created through a mass of relationships between the people who originally made and exchanged the objects, the collectors of the objects, and the museums in which they are currently held. In order to understand both the past and the present of a museum, it is necessary to understand these relationships. The past links between producers and users, collectors and museums can tell us much about the histories of the people making the objects, the intellectual and personal histories of those doing the collecting, and the institutional history of the museums in which they now reside. The aims are not just to elucidate the history of the Museum, but to explore its present role through the sets of relationships that can be created with various groups around the world.
Applying knowledge gained from research in a very practical context, Laura Peers continued her work as a member of the Department of Culture, Media and Sport’s Human Remains Working Group. The group is exploring contexts of collecting, storage, display, and curation of human remains in UK museums. The findings are expected to frame legislation facilitating repatriation of remains in situations where this seems sensible but might not be permitted by museum governance statutes, and to provide guidance to UK museums on curation of human remains. The Group’s report is due to be submitted in 2002.

Research Visitors
There were 386 recorded research visits to the Museum during the year. Of these, 129 required material to be retrieved from the reserve object collections and 123 (of which 88 were from overseas) required material to be retrieved from the photographic and manuscript collections. The total number of recorded research enquiries dealt with by Museum staff was 1859. Of these, 800 were received by email, 499 by phone, 280 by post or fax, and 280 in person.
The number of research visits to the object collections was slightly down on the previous year, from 137 in 2000–2001, though this can no doubt be explained by the fact that the textile, clothing, and footwear collections were closed to research visitors from April for the rest of the reporting year in preparation for their move to the Banbury Road. The number of visits to the photograph and manuscript collections increased dramatically, by almost 30% from 103 in 2000–2001. As usual there was a very wide range of visitors, but it is noticeable that the collections are being used in incqreasingly analytical ways. This is partly because the photograph collections are being utilized less as a picture library and more as a serious research resource by well-informed scholars engaged with contemporary debates in anthropology, history, and visualization. Increasingly, research visitors also use the photograph, manuscript, and object collections as a coherent whole. This would appear to vindicate the curatorial strategy over the years of developing the photograph and manuscript collections as integral to the Museum’s collections overall.
As usual, among the research visitors during the year were a number of representatives from source communities overseas. For example, in December the Museum was visited by a delegation from the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) who had the previous day addressed the House of Parliament Joint Working Group on Human Remains. The delegation consisted of Commissioner Rodney Dillon (ATSIC Commissioner for Tasmania) and Carl Currey (Senior Policy Adviser, Rights and Cultural Development Section, ATSIC). They were accompanied by Pablo Kang, Second Secretary, Political and Trade Policy Branch, Australian High Commission. In a two-hour meeting the delegation met with Museum staff to discuss issues relating to the presence of Australian Aboriginal human remains in museum and scientific collections.
Teaching and Examining
The Museum’s research and scholarship shapes and influences the teaching that members of  staff carry out as part of their University duties. Museum staff continue to teach on the University’s undergraduate degrees in Archaeology & Anthropology, Human Sciences, Modern History, and Geography; the M.Sc. and M.Phil. degrees in Material Anthropology and Museum Ethnography; and variously for M.Sc., M.Phil. and D.Phil. students studying Social Anthropology, History of Art and Visual Culture, Archaeology, and Music. During the course of the year, Museum staff gave 47 University lectures and 525 seminars and tutorials. There were some forty students involved in postgraduate research at the Museum during the year. Details of the teaching and examining carried out by individual members of staff will be found in Annex D: Staff Activities.

Balfour Library
The Balfour Library continues to be central to the Museum’s work and is used daily by Museum staff, students, and visitors. This was a particularly busy year, with an increased number of loans. Thanks to the work of Ines Asceric and Gabriel Hanganu, the retrospective conversion project, funded by the generous support of Sir Charles Chadwyck-Healey, continued apace. Jane Christie-Miller continued her much-appreciated cataloguing work on the maps bequeathed by Donald Baden-Powell. A list of donors is provided in Annex B: Acquisitions.

Donald Baden-Powell Quaternary Research Centre
As part of a University-wide restructuring programme, responsibility for the Donald Baden-Powell Quaternary Research Centre (housed at the Museum’s 60 Banbury Road site) has been formally transferred to the School of Archaeology. Details of its activities and publications for the year will be found in the School’s annual report. The position of Professor Derek Roe, the centre’s honorary director, has also been transferred from the former Faculty of Anthropology and Geography (and the School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography) to the School of Archaeology. The centre continues to be housed at 60 Banbury Road, however, and so, despite the new administrative separation, a physical link with the Museum remains.

The PADMAC unit, which is itself associated with the Quaternary Research Centre, maintains its attachment to the Museum through which it receives its funding (thanks to the generous support of Company Services Associates). This year, the unit increased its multidisciplinary capabilities with the arrival of two new members: Alice Thomas, a D.Phil. geology student who joined in September 2001; and a soil scientist, Helen Walkington, who joined as a research fellow in January 2002. Vicky Winton, studying Palaeolithic artefacts technology, has spent the final year of her doctoral research writing a thesis that presents important new evidence for Lower and Middle Palaeolithic stone-tool production and use, as well as early human landscape exploitation in southern England.
The adoption by Surrey Archaeological Group of the specific, detailed, and complex methodologies developed by Julie Scott-Jackson for the investigation and excavation of Lower and Middle Palaeolithic sites on deposits mapped as Clay-with-flints was one of the particular successes of the year. This success is due to the work of the PADMAC unit in general, Dr Julie Scott-Jackson’s various publications in particular, and her ongoing advice and assistance to archaeological groups. Important links were also made with the British Geological Survey in Keysworth following a visit by Alice Thomas and Julie Scott-Jackson in November 2001.
The unit carried out extensive fieldwork during this reporting period: at Dickett’s Field (Hampshire) in August and September 2001; at Ibworth (Hampshire) in February 2002; at Ibstone (Buckinghamshire) in March 2002; at Upper Basildon (Berkshire) in May 2002; at Lower Kingswood (Surrey) in June and September 2002; and at Cowleaze Wood (Buckinghamshire) and Haydon Farm (Hampshire) in July 2002. Post-excavation investigations, including soil analysis, were carried out throughout the year. A new web site was developed for the unit and a full relational database designed and constructed.

Financial Success
This year saw the beginning of major new funding arrangements for the University’s museums. From August 2001, the grant for core activities previously received from the Higher Education Funding Council for England, as part of the University’s block grant, is now received from the Arts and Humanities Research Board Core Funding Awards for Higher Education Museums, Galleries, and Collections. The Museum will receive £2.8 million over five years, from August 2001 until July 2006, conditional on its satisfying a wide range of performance measures. The University has protected its allocation to the Museum from cuts affecting departments, for which we are very grateful. However, the Museum’s success in raising funds externally means that the University’s direct grant to the Museum now amounts to less than a quarter of the Museum’s income. Moreover, public and scholarly expectations of what a museum of the calibre of the Pitt Rivers should provide means that the Museum’s funding is inadequate to cover properly even core functions.

Project Grants
The three-year Resource/DCMS Designation Challenge Fund project came to an end in March 2002. An application for funding for a follow-on project was successful, the Museum being awarded £149,612 in July for the ‘Court Project’, which will run from October 2002 to March 2004. Elizabeth Edwards was awarded £6,000 from the Hulme University Fund for a pilot project to copy the Museum’s original film holdings on to DVD. Julia Nicholson was awarded £4000 from the Anglo-Omani Society for a project to catalogue the Crocker-Jones collection of Omani material. Laura Peers was awarded £2,500 from the British Academy for a visiting professorship for Jennifer Brown. Clare Harris was successful in the first stage of an application to the Leverhulme Trust for £10,000 to enable a Tibetan painter to become an artist in residence at the Pitt Rivers Museum during 2003; the second stage of this application has now been submitted.

Research Grants
The following research grants were obtained during the year. Chris Gosden and Mike O’Hanlon were awarded £326,958 from the Economic and Social Research Council for the ‘Relational Museum’ project. Julie Scott-Jackson was awarded £240,000 from the CSA Fund for Palaeolithic Archaeology (Empower Group) for the funding of the PADMAC Unit for a further three years. Jeremy Coote received £51,084 from the Arts and Humanities Research Board’s Innovations Awards Scheme 2001 for ‘Pacific Pathways: Multiplying Contexts for the Forster (“Cook-Voyage”) Collection at the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford’ and £4,851 from the British Academy (Small Research Grants) for ‘Luo Histories and Material Culture at the Pitt Rivers Museum’. Clare Harris received £2000 in the form of an anonymous donation to enable student Vibha Joshi to continue her work on the Naga collections at the Museum. Peter Mitchell received £600 from the British Academy and £140 from the Lockey bequest towards the costs of travel to South Africa to attend the meeting of the Southern African Association of Archaeologists and present papers on southern African archaeological collections in the British Museum and ongoing post-excavation analysis of Likoaeng, Lesotho. Vicky Winton received £450 from the Meyerstein Fund (Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford) for fieldwork at Dickett’s Field, Hampshire.

Museum Shop and other Trading Activities
Shop sales increased by 11% on the previous year’s trading, 1% more than the target set. Total sales for the year were £81,657.88. New stock was introduced to cater better for the large number of young families coming as a result of holiday activities and the ‘Family Friendly’ Sunday activities. The stock linked to recycling continued to sell very well, and new stock related to body arts, such as tattoo-transfers, jewels for the teeth and skin, and flashing belly-button studs, also proved popular with students. Despite the increase in sales, the net profit to the Museum fell to £6,055.79, mainly due to increased overheads, particularly rising salary costs.
Other income generated by the Museum included: £4,170 from mail-order book sales; £1,460 from facility hire and filming; £856 received through photographic services; and £4,488 received in donations through the collecting box. From July, the Museum began to develop a portfolio of images for commercial licensing with the Oxford Collection. It is hoped that this will generate additional income in future years.

A collection of costumes from Ladakh, India (from Monisha Ahmed; 2001.60); a collection of body paint from Papua New Guinea (from Joshua Bell; 2002.15); a collection of textiles and costumes from Guatemala (from Ed Carter; 2001.76); a hairbraider’s signboard from Togo (from Indigo Arts, Philadelphia; 2002.2.1); a black tie (from Walter’s in The Turl, Oxford; 2002.26); a field collection of Maori ornaments and related material (from Peter Gathercole; 2002.33); a field collection of colour photographs of Igbo settlement, Nigeria (from Anna Hoare; 2002.39); a model bicycle made from recycled materials in Didcot, Oxfordshire (from the maker, Miriam Maselkowski; 2002.32); two shields from Papua New Guinea (from Oceanic Arts Australia; 2001.56); a field collection of ornaments and related material from Western Kenya (from Gilbert Oteyo; 2002.42); a collection of contemporary cosmetics, a tub of vaseline, a packet of false nails, and a 1950s ‘bullet’ bra (from Jenny Peck; 2001.72, 2001.79.1, 2002.23, 2002.24); a field collection of baskets and ceramics from Sudan and related photographs and manuscripts (from Natalie Tobert; 2001.77 and 2001.81).

Acland Hospital, via Vanda Longshaw (a breast prosthesis; 2001.63); anonymous (a purse decorated with beads and hair, from Asia; 2002.41); Stephen Blackman (a collection of Hopi kachina dolls; 2001.66); Chris Boylan (a collection of recycled objects from Papua New Guinea; 2001.68); Nicholas Bunnin (a collection of men’s clothing from Chiapas, Mexico; 2001.69); Ben Campbell (views of the Museum during the reroofing; 2002.37); E. Chilver (a photograph of an ‘animal dance’ in Cameroon in 1977; 2002.11); William Delafield (photographs of the Museum’s photographic collections storage in 1998; 2002.3); Bob ‘Eagle’ Smith (a collection of tattooing instruments; 2001.65); Stephen Goldsmith (a collection of material from Zimbabwe; 2001.80); Robin Harland (two footballs from Lusaka, Zambia; 2002.1); Graham Horrocks (dental cast, with wire and plastic brace; 2001.75); Val Hunt (a hat made by the donor from recycled materials; 2002.31); C. Jones (a hammock from Guyana; 2001.70); Jonathan Kingdon (a recycled toy truck from Tanzania and a lamp from Sulawesi; 2001.78); Hélène La Rue (a plastic whistle in the form of a bird, from Oxford; 2002.47); Graham Lenton (a collection of musical instruments and related material from Malawi; 2001.83); William MacDougall (a model of a double-hulled canoe, from the Cook Islands; 2001.55); Micky May (a Sepik mask, from Papua New Guinea; 2002.19); Needletree Professional Body Piercing (a collection of body piercing instruments; 2001.64); William Heaney (a shield from Papua New Guinea; 2002.22); Lynne Parker (a postcard of a market in Lagos, Nigeria; 2001.52); the estate of the late Darrell Posey (fieldnotes and photographs relating to Dr Posey’s fieldwork in South America; 2001.82); the estate of the late Hugh Richardson (a large collection of photographs from Tibet, and related material; 2001.59); Chris Tree (a collection of body-piercing instruments and jewellery; 2001.73).
Eight further items from Benin—including a staff, a box-lid, and five agate beads—were added to collection on long-term loan to the Museum from the Dumas-Egerton Trust (collection 1991.13).

Donations to the Library
The Balfour Library received bequests of material on Mesoamerican archaeology from the library of A. J. Digby and a bequest of material on Asian art from the collection of Jeanne Bromfield. The Library also received donations from, or on behalf of: David Ambrose, José Mariano Barrenetxea, Pascal Beyls, Audrey Colson, Jeremy Coote, Robin Derricourt, Steve Grafe, A. V. M. Horton, the Indian Institute Library, Chantal Knowles, Deborah Manley, Andrew Moore, Chris Morton, Nils Finn Munch-Petersen, Leah Niederstadt, Linacre College Library, D. F. Petch, Rhys Richards, Charles S. Rhyne, Sackler Library, School of Geography Library, E. Schriber-Butterfill, Shung Ye Museum of Formosan Aborigines, Nick Thomas, Tylor Library, University Museum of Natural History Library, and Gisela Völger.

Staff Activities (including Teaching and Examining)
Jeremy Coote continued his researches into the history of the Museum’s early collections, especially those from the Pacific. In October and November he made research visits to the BBC Written Archives Centre, Caversham; the London Missionary Society Archives at the School of Oriental and African Studies; and the Museum of London. In February he gave a talk about the Museum’s Forster Collection web site to the Oxford University Anthropological Society. In March he evaluated the collections database for the ethnography collections at the Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter. Also in March he spoke about internet access to collections at ‘Accessible and Friendly’, a meeting of the South East (Western Counties) Region of the British Association of the Friends of Museums. In April he attended a workshop on digitization organized by the Arts and Humanities Data Service at the Bristol offices of the Arts and Humanities Research Board. In May he attended ‘Power and Collecting’, the annual conference of the Museum Ethnographers Group in Edinburgh, where he gave a paper:‘Native Curiosities or Scientific Specimens? The Forster (“Cook-Voyage”) Collection at the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford’. Also in May he attended a session of the workshop ‘Tatau/Tattoo: Embodied Art and Cultural Exchange’ at the National Maritime Museum. During the year he advised the Repatriation Office of the Department of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution on the historical significance of an item in a repatriation claim. In June he attended the PRM/ISCA colloquium on ‘Body Arts and Modernity’. Through the year, he gave a number of television and radio interviews, including one for Radio New Zealand about Makereti and the Museum. He continued as an editor of JASO: Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford and as a corresponding member of the research group ‘Anthropologie, Objets et Esthétiques’ of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. For the Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, he supervised two doctoral students, served as an assessor for a number of others, and examined one doctoral thesis. He gave occasional supervisions to undergraduates, supervised one undergraduate dissertation, and served as assessor of another for the Final Honour School in Archaeology & Anthropology.

Marina De Alarcón continued her work on the Museum’s reserve collections in general and the firearms in particular. She upgraded and enhanced the Museum’s records and liaised with Thames Valley Police regarding new storage and security systems. She took the opportunity provided by couriering material to Japan to visit a number of Japanese museums. In May she attended ‘Power and Collecting’, the annual conference of the Museum Ethnographers Group in Edinburgh. Together with Julia Nicholson, she gave a talk on museum documentation for museum studies students from Leicester University.

Elizabeth Edwards gave invited papers at the Samuel Butler centenary symposium at St John’s College, Cambridge and at ‘Ethnography in the Metropole: Colonial Meaning-Making and Post-Colonial World Culture in Amsterdam’, the summer school of the universities of Amsterdam and Maastricht. She also convened an academic seminar, ‘Visuality and Religion in Brazil’, with Professor Leslie Bethall of the Brazilian Studies Centre, University of Oxford. She gave seminars at the Royal College of Art and the University of Manchester. She gave a ‘distinguished curators’ cameo presentation at the opening of the ‘Insight Research Centre’ of the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television, Bradford. With Chris Gosden she was invited to convene a Wenner-Gren Research Symposium for 2003. She attended the ‘Visual Evidence’ conference at the National Portrait Gallery. She made two contributions to ‘Collected Sights’, the Museum Ethnographers Group study day on anthropology and photography in Cambridge. She undertook research in the collections of the National Museums of Scotland (Edinburgh), the British Museum, the British Library, the Manchester Museum, the Victoria & Albert Museum, and the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. She continued to serve on the editorial boards of History of Photography, Visual Anthropology Review, and The Oxford Companion to the Photograph. She was also appointed to the editorial board of Visual Studies. She continued to serve on the Photographic Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute and the academic evaluation board of the Research Support Libraries Programme Mission Archives Project at the School of Oriental and African Studies. She was appointed Visiting Research Fellow in History of Photography at the London Institute. She continued to contribute lectures, seminars, and tutorials to the teaching of visual anthropology and museum studies for both undergraduates and postgraduates. She co-supervised five doctoral students, one of whom, Gywneira Isaac, successfully completed her doctorate during the course of the year. She continues to be in demand as an external supervisor for students at other universities in UK and Europe. She was also on the peer-review boards for the professorial promotion of two North American scholars. She was appointed external examiner for the M.A. in Visual Anthropology at Goldsmiths College, University of London.

Chris Gosden continued to serve as a member of the ‘Classics, Ancient History, and Archaeology’ Panel of the Arts and Humanities Research Board and as one of four curators for ‘The Phantom Museum’ a forthcoming exhibition about Sir Henry Wellcome’s collections, to be held at the British Museum in 2003. He continues to sit on the editorial boards of Journal of Social Archaeology (as British Editor), World Archaeology, Archaeology in Oceania, and Ethnograpisch–Archäologishe Zeitschrift. With Elizabeth Edwards he was invited to convene a Wenner-Gren Research Symposium for 2003. During July he excavated (with Gary Lock) at the Romano-British site of Frilford, south Oxfordshire. He gave lectures and tutorials in ‘People, Environment, and Culture’, ‘Material Culture, Art, and Society’, ‘The Nature of Archaeological Enquiry’; and ‘Material Culture in Melanesia’ and supervised some fourteen graduate students.

Clare Harris was on maternity leave from December 2001 to May 2002 but she continued to teach, research, and publish over the course of the year. She convened a major conference on Ladakh (Western Himalayas) and curated a small exhibition of historic photographs of that region at the Museum. Work on researching and organizing a major exhibition, Seeing Lhasa, to open at the museum in 2003 continued throughout the year. She has been appointed as an editorial adviser to the anthropological journal Ethnos and is a consultant to a number of museum projects around the world. She served on a range of committees for the School of Anthropology, the Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, and the Aris Trust Centre for Tibetan and Himalayan Studies. She convened the Museum’s seminar series in Michaelmas term. She taught the first term of the M.Sc. and M.Phil. in Material Anthropology and Museum Ethnography and continued to lecture to undergraduates and postgraduates (in ‘People, Environment, and Culture’, ‘Material Culture, Art, and Aesthetics’, and ‘Introduction to the Pitt Rivers Museum’). She supervised four D.Phil. students, one of whom, Fernanda Pirie, successfully completed her thesis during the year. She examined two other D.Phils.

Hélène La Rue was on sabbatical leave throughout the year. Her first task was to produce new editions of the Bate Collection’s series of guides, demi-catalogues, and period guides to the instruments in the collection. Her second was to complete the compilation of a database of the Bate’s holdings, which is now available for public consultation on the iMac at the Bate Collection and online through the web site of the Performing Arts Data Service. She also completed the relabelling of the Bate’s displays. She gave one of the Winter Lecture series at Kew Gardens on the subject of the sounds of plants. At the European study day organized by the Friends of the Pitt Rivers in March she lectured on various European festivals under the title ‘A Fantasie of Festivals’. In June she attended the American Musical Instrument Society’s annual meeting and conference in Boston.

Peter Mitchell organized the seventh annual Archaeology & Anthropology Open Day and co-organized the third Sutton Trust Summer School for Archaeology & Anthropology. He continued as Secretary of the James A. Swan Fund and as Tutor for Admissions at St Hugh’s. He served on the Council of the British Institute in Eastern Africa and on the editorial boards of World Archaeology, African Archaeological Review, and Before Farming. In April, he co-organized, with graduate students Ann Haour and John Hobart, a meeting on ‘African Archaeology in Britain and Ireland’ at  St Hugh’s College; the proceedings of which are in press. Several papers were written or revised during the year and work was begun on a book about interactions between Africa and the rest of the world. Presentations were made at two conferences: the meeting of the Southern African Association of Archaeologists in Cape Town, South Africa, and the meeting of the African Studies Association (UK) in Birmingham. He also spoke at the Museum’s own Friday seminar series. He lectured for the undergraduate degree in Archaeology & Anthropology, tutored for his own college (St Hugh’s) and others, supervised graduate students and co-ordinated the Honour Moderations courses ‘Introduction to World Archaeology’ and ‘Perspectives on Human Evolution’. He served as an examiner for the M.St. degrees in European Archaeology and World Archaeology, the Final Honour School in Archaeology & Anthropology, and Honour Moderations in Archaeology & Anthropology.

Julia Nicholson worked on a number of collections-based projects during the year. For example, she worked with Rachel Payne on the origins and history of the Museum’s collection of Japanese noh masks. This work was made possible by the award to Rachel Payne of a Laming Junior Research Fellowship at Queen’s College. It is expected to culminate in publication. She also worked with Gigi Crocker Jones on a large and extremely well-documented collection of textiles and baskets from Oman that Mrs Crocker Jones intends to donate to the Museum. In connection with this, she secured funding from the Anglo-Omani Society for the detailed cataloguing of the collection. Together with Marina de Alarcón she gave a talk on museum documentation for museum studies students from Leicester University. She also gave a number of gallery tours of the Transformations exhibition.

Michael O’Hanlon co-organized and spoke at a two-day international colloquium ‘Body Arts and Modernity’ held at the Pitt Rivers Museum Research Centre in June. He gave talks about the Museum to many groups throughout the year. He contributed to an exhibition at the Musée d'ethnographie de la Ville de Genève, was asked to join Resource’s Museums Policy Advisory Group, and continued to serve as a Trustee for the Green Centre in Brighton and on the editorial boards of the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, the Journal of Material Culture, and Ethnos. He co-ordinated the ‘People, Environment, and Culture’ lecture series in Michaelmas, and lectured in it, as well as in ‘Material Culture, Art, and Society’ and ‘Fieldwork Methods’. He also taught half of a course on ‘Debates and Themes in Anthropology’ and co-taught an option on Melanesian material culture. He supervised four doctoral students.

Robert Pearce attended the conference ‘Pest Odyssey’ at the British Library and completed a Manual Handling Accessors Course. Together with the Museum’s other conservators, he continued to be an active member of the Oxford Conservators Group.
Laura Peers served on the Human Remains Working Group (set up by the Department of Culture, Media and Sport), exploring issues related to human remains in UK museums. She carried out fieldwork for a project funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Board on photo-elicitation and collaborative methodology with the Kainai Nation of Alberta. She organized a conference on the social history of the fur trade, which brought 75 delegates, mostly from North America to Oxford. She continued to give lectures and tutorials for undergraduates in Archaeology & Anthropology and Geography and graduates in Material Anthropology and Museum Ethnography and Social and Cultural Anthropology. She supervised graduate and doctoral students, one of whom Gwyneira Isaac completed her thesis this year. She served as Chair of Examiners for Honour Moderations in Archaeology & Anthropology, and as an examiner for the M.Sc. and M.Phil. examinations in Material Anthropology and Museum Ethnography and Social and Cultural Anthropology. She also served as an assessor for the Ethnology option for the Geography degree.

Alison Petch gave a numbers of talks during the year. In February she spoke to the Ramsden Club of Gunsmiths on General Pitt Rivers’s interest in firearms and the early history of the Museum. In April, she spoke to undergraduate archaeology students from Cardiff University, again on General Pitt Rivers and the early history of the museum. She gave talks about the Museum’s DCF-funded retrospective cataloguing programme to a variety of other groups including staff from the Horniman Museum, the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, and the Ashmolean Museum. In March, she attended and spoke at a conference, organized by Consignia for users of Calm collections-management systems, on the practicalities of developing terminology thesauruses. In May, she attended ‘Power and Collecting’, the annual conference of the Museum Ethnographers Group in Edinburgh, where she gave a paper on ‘The Interpretation of Power and Collecting in the Past. She continued to serve as a member of the Museum Ethnographers Group’s committee throughout the year.

Heather Richardson continued to serve as Treasurer of the Ethnography Section of the United Kingdom Institute for Conservation. She helped organize the Conservators of Ethnographic Artefacts seminar ‘Conservation of Unusual Materials’ held in Oxford. She attended a workshop at the British Museum on making pressure mounts. Together with the Museum’s other conservators, she continued to be an active member of the Oxford Conservators Group.

Julie Scott-Jackson continued to have sole responsibility for direction of the PADMAC Unit, including the research agenda, fieldwork, team leadership, management, and fund raising. She acted as Palaeolithic advisor and committee member of the Avebury Archaeological and Historical Research Group for the Avebury World Heritage Site (English Heritage) and advisor to local archaeological groups on the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic. She directed and supervised an extensive programme of fieldwork (including resistivity survey and excavation) at the Palaeolithic site at Lower Kingswood, urrey. In November she gave a lecture at the Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins Group, University of Southampton, on the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic site at Dickett’s Field, Yarnham’s Farm, Holybourne, Hampshire. She completed the text of the palaeolithic section, and also reviewed and edited the geology section, of a forthcoming edited volume on the Archaeology of the Avebury Landscape to be published by Oxbow Books for English Heritage. She continued updating the (unpublished) gazetteer of Lower and Middle Palaeolithic artefacts found in relation to deposits mapped as Clay-with-flints on Chalk downlands of southern England, drawing in part on the relevant collections at the Pitt Rivers Museum. She established links with other  relevant departments in the University of Oxford and at other universities. She supervised the work of two D.Phil. students and directed the research of Dr Helen Walkington.

Birgitte Speake attended the annual Care of Collections meeting in London and a seminar on dust held at the National Trust in November 2001. Together with the Museum’s other conservators, she continued to be an active member of the Oxford Conservators Group.
Helen Walkington joined the PADMAC Unit in January 2002 as a Research Fellow. Her expertise lies in pedology and sedimentology. Her post-excavation research on soils collected by the PADMAC Unit has contributed to the interpretation of the context of Palaeolithic archaeology at Dickett’s Field on deposits mapped as Clay-with-flints. She undertook a soil survey at Banstead Heath, Surrey and was involved in the resistivity survey and excavation at Lower Kingswood, Surrey. With Isabel Geddes she wrote the geology section of a forthcoming edited volume on the Archaeology of the Avebury Landscape to be published by Oxbow Books for English Heritage. She also produced a report (for joint publication with Dr Julie Scott-Jackson) on the comparison of a range of techniques for particle size analysis of sediments to allow evaluation of field data collected by the Unit with the earliest published work on deposits mapped as Clay-with-flints.

Kate White undertook a six-week ‘Sharing Museum Skills Millennium Award’ placement at the British Museum in autumn 2001. She joined the Museum’s Assocation (MA) ethics committee and the sub-committee developing new ethical guidelines on the care and use of collections. She participated in a session at the MA conference presenting this work to delegates. As a member of the Museum Ethnographers Group ethics sub-committee, she contributed to drafting ethical guidelines for ethnographic collections. She continued to be an active member of the Visitor Services Group, attending meetings at the Victoria & Albert Museum, in Sheffield, at Kings College, London, and at Tate Britain. In September, she attended the Oxfordshire Family Learning conference and ‘Designs: A Force for the Future’, a seminar on intellectual property rights organized by Rouse and Co International. She worked with students from Bath College of Art on a marketing project and gave talks on marketing and audience research to students visiting the Museum.

Staff Publications
Those publications relating directly to the Museum’s collections are indicated with an *.
Alison Brown, ‘Revealing Histories: A Cross-Cultural Reading of the Franklin Motor Expedition to Canada’, in Collectors: Individuals and Institutions (Contributions in Critical Museology and Material Culture), edited by Anthony Shelton, London: Horniman Museums and Gardens / Coimbra: Museu Antropológico da Universidade de Coimbra (2001), pp. 23–40.
Alison Brown (with Laura Peers), ‘Sharing Knowledge’, Museums Journal, Vol. CII, no. 5 (May 2002), pp. 24–5, 27. [*]
Jeremy Coote, ‘Lively Objects in the Pitt Rivers Museum’, The Friends of the Pitt Rivers Museum Newsletter, no. 39 (January 2002), p. 6. [*]
Jeremy Coote, ‘Maximising Body Arts’, The Friends of the Pitt Rivers Museum Newsletter, no. 41 (July 2002), p. 1. [*]
Jeremy Coote (with John Hobart, Peter Mitchell, Marina de Alarcón, and Gwyneira Issac), ‘Early Rock Art Records in the Collections of The Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford’, Southern African Field Archaeology, no. 9 (2000), pp. 43–54. [*]
Marina de Alarcón, ‘Needlework Tools in Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford’, Needlework Tools and Accessories, no. 3 (August 2001), unpaginated [pp. 2–3]. [*]
Marina de Alarcón (with John Hobart, Peter Mitchell, Jeremy Coote, and Gwyneira Issac), ‘Early Rock Art Records in the Collections of The Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford’, Southern African Field Archaeology, no. 9 (2000), pp. 43–54. [*]
Sandra Dudley (with Alison Petch), ‘Using Multi-Media Tools to Teach Anthropology: “Pitt Rivers, Anthropology and Ethnography in the Nineteenth Century”’, Journal of Museum Ethnography, no. 14 (March 2002), pp. 14–23. [*]
Elizabeth Edwards (editor), Acts of Faith: Brazilian Contemporary Photography, São Paolo: BrasilConnects / Oxford, Pitt Rivers Museum (2001).
Elizabeth Edwards, ‘Border Practices: Photography and Anthropology’, in Acts of Faith: Brazilian Contemporary Photography, edited by Elizabeth Edwards, São Paolo: BrasilConnects / Oxford, Pitt Rivers Museum (2001), pp. 11–14.
Elizabeth Edwards, ‘La photographie ou la construction de l’image de l’Autre’, in Zoos Humains: de la vénus hottentote aux reality shows (Textes à l’appui: serie histoire contemporaine), edited by Nicolas Bancel, Pascal Blanchard, Gilles Boëtsch, Eric Deroo, and Sandrine Lemaire, Paris: Editions la Découverte (2002), pp. 323–8.
Elizabeth Edwards, ‘Material Beings: Objecthood and Ethnographic Photographs’, Visual Studies, Vol. XVII, no. 1 (April 2002), pp. 67–75. [*]
Elizabeth Edwards, ‘Photography and the Performance of History’, Kronos: Journal of Cape History, Vol. XLII (2002), pp. 15–29. [*]
Elizabeth Edwards, Review of Regards sur la Monde: Trésors Photographiques du Quai d’Orsay, 1860–1914 (an exhibition held at the Musée d’Histoire Contemporaine, Paris from 15 September to 10 November 2000), Journal of Museum Ethnography, no. 14 (March 2002), pp. 150–51.
Chris Gosden (editor), Archaeology and Aesthetics (Special Issue of World Archaeology, Vol. XXXIII, no. 2 (October 2001)).
Chris Gosden, ‘Making Sense: Archaeology and Aesthetics’, in World Archaeology, Vol. XXXIII, no. 2 (October 2001), pp. 163–7.
Chris Gosden, ‘Further Excavations at Frilford’, The Friends of the Pitt Rivers Museum Newsletter, no. 40 (April 2002), p. 7.
Hélène La Rue, Philip Bate’s Gift: A Brief Account of his Life with Lists of his Musical Instruments and Instrumental Tutors in the Bate Collection, Oxford, Oxford: The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford (2002).
Hélène La Rue (editor), A Guide to the Bate Collection (Bate Guides), 12th edition, Oxford: The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford (2002).
Hélène La Rue (editor), Keyboards and Strings (Bate Guides), 6th edition, Oxford: The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford (2001).
Hélène La Rue (editor), Flutes (Bate Guides), 6th edition, Oxford: The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford (2001).
Hélène La Rue (editor), Percussion (Bate Guides), 5th edition, Oxford: The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford (2001).
Hélène La Rue (editor), Musical Instruments from Purcell to Handel in the Bate Collection (Bate Period Guides), 3rd edition, Oxford: The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford (2001).
Hélène La Rue (editor), Musical Instruments of Beethoven and His Time (Bate Period Guides), 2nd edition, Oxford: The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford (2001).
Hélène La Rue (editor), Musical Instruments of Handel and His Time (Bate Period Guides), 2nd edition, Oxford: The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford (2001).
Hélène La Rue (editor), Musical Instruments of Mozart and His Time (Bate Period Guides), 2nd edition, Oxford: The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford (2001).
Hélène La Rue (editor), Musical Instruments of the Baroque in the Bate Collection (Bate Period Guides), 2nd edition, Oxford: The Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford (2001).
Peter Mitchell (with contributions by Alison Roberts, Alan Cohen, and Karen Perkins), Catalogue of Stone Age Artefacts from Southern Africa in The British Museum (British Museum Occasional Paper, no. 108), London: British Museum (2002).
Peter Mitchell, ‘Archaeological Collections from the Anglo-Zulu War in the Collections of the British Museum’, Journal of the Anglo-Zulu War Historical Society, Vol. 8 (December 2000), pp. 1–8.
Peter Mitchell, ‘Andrew Anderson and the Nineteenth Century Origins of Southern African Archaeology’, Southern African Humanities, Vol. XIII (December 2001), pp. 37–60.
Peter Mitchell (with John Hobart, Jeremy Coote, Marina de Alarcón, and Gwyneira Issac), ‘Early Rock Art Records in the Collections of The Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford’, Southern African Field Archaeology, no. 9 (2000), pp. 43-54. [*]
Peter Mitchell, ‘Hunter-Gatherer Archaeology in Southern Africa: Recent Research, Future Trends’, Before Farming: The Archaeology of Old-World Hunter-Gatherers, issue 2002/1. [Downloadable at <>.]
Peter Mitchell, Review of Kernel, by Tuuliki Jantunen (Windhoek: 1999), African Book Publishing Record, Vol. XXVIII, no. 1 (2002), pp. 8–9.
Peter Mitchell, Review of Medicinal Plants of South Africa (2nd edn), by B.-E. van Wyk, B. van Oudtshoorn. and N. Gericke (Pretoria, 2000), African Book Publishing Record, Vol. XXVII, no. 4 (2001), p. 308.
Julia Nicholson, ‘Unmasking the Noh’, Friends of the Pitt Rivers Museum Newsletter, no. 40 (April 2002), p. 1. [*]
Julia Nicholson, ‘“Transformations—The Art of Recycling” at the Pitt Rivers Museum’, Journal of Museum Ethnography, no. 14 (March 2002), pp. 74–83. [*]
Ann Nicol, ‘Digging In: Fossil Workshop Tips’, Big News [Newsletter of the British Interactive Group], (Spring 2002), p. 9.
Ann Nicol (joint editor; unsigned), University of Oxford Museums and Collections: Inspiration for Education, Oxford: University of Oxford (2002). [*]
Michael O'Hanlon, ‘The Field of Collecting: Back to the Future’, Folk: Journal of the Danish Ethnographic Society, Vol. XLIII ( 2001), pp. 211–19.
Michael O’Hanlon, ‘Beauty of the World’, Oxford Today: The University Magazine, Vol. XIV, no. 3 (Trinity Issue 2002), pp. 28–30. [*]
Michael O’Hanlon, ‘War of Words: Politics, Four-Wheel Drives and Rugby League Inspire the Decoration of New Guinea War Shields’, Oxford Today: The University Magazine, Vol. XIV, no. 1 (Michaelmas 2001), p. 51 [*]
Michael O’Hanlon, ‘Director’s Foreword’, in Acts of Faith: Brazilian Contemporary Photography, edited by Elizabeth Edwards, São Paolo: BrasilConnects / Oxford, Pitt Rivers Museum (2001), p. 7.
Jenny Peck, ‘Body Arts’, Friends of the Pitt Rivers Museum Newsletter, no. 40 (April 2002), p. 4. [*]
Laura Peers (editor, with Theresa Schenck), My First Years in the Fur Trade: The Journals of 1802–1804, by George Nelson (Rupert’s Land Record Society series; 8), St Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press / Montreal etc.: McGill-Queen’s University Press (2002).
Laura Peers, ‘Revising the Past: The Heritage Elite and Native Peoples in North America’, in Elite Cultures: Anthropological Perspectives (ASA Monographs, no. 38), edited by Cris Shore and Stephen Nugent, London: Routledge (2002), pp. 173–88.
Laura Peers (with Alison Brown), ‘Sharing Knowledge’, Museums Journal, Vol. CII, no. 5 (May 2002), pp. 24–5, 27. [*]
Laura Peers, ‘From Hudson’s Bay to Oxford’, Friends of the Pitt Rivers Museum Newsletter, no. 40 (April 2002), p. 6. [*]
Alison Petch, ‘Assembling and Arranging: The Pitt Rivers’ Collections, 1850–2001', in Collectors: Individuals and Institutions (Contributions in Critical Museology and Material Culture), edited by Anthony Shelton, London: Horniman Museums and Gardens / Coimbra: Museu Antropológico da Universidade de Coimbra (2001), pp. 239–52.[*]
Alison Petch, ‘Today a Computerized Museum Catalogue: Tomorrow the World’, Journal of Museum Ethnography, no. 14 (March 2002), pp. 94–9. [*]
Alison Petch (with Sandra Dudley), ‘Using Multi-Media Tools to Teach Anthropology: “Pitt Rivers, Anthropology and Ethnography in the Nineteenth Century”’, Journal of Museum Ethnography, no. 14 (March 2002), pp. 14–23. [*]
Alison Petch, ‘How to Find out what Treasures there are in the Pitt Rivers Museum’ Museum Ethnographers Group Newsletter (January 2002), pp. 1–2. [*]
Alison Petch, ‘The Future of the Journal of Museum Ethnography’, Museum Ethnographers Group Newsletter (January 2002), pp. 2–3.
Alison Petch, ‘Mission Impossible: Completed Ahead of Schedule’, Friends of the Pitt Rivers Museum Newsletter, no. 39 (January 2001), p. 4. [*]
Heather Richardson, ‘The Conservation of Plains Indian Shirts at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution’, in The Conservation of Fur, Feather and Skin: Seminar Organised by the Conservators of Ethnographic Artefacts at the Museum of London on 11 December 2000 (Conservators of Ethnographic Artefacts Series, No. 3), edited by Margot M. Wright, London: Archetype Publications (2002), pp. 7–24.
Heather Richardson (with Lorraine Rostant), ‘Repairing a Decoy Cap’, Conservation News, no. 78 (May 2002), p. 31. [*]
Heather Richardson, ‘1001 Nubian Beads Shared’, Friends of the Pitt Rivers Museum Newsletter, no. 39 (January), p. 1. [*]
Julie Scott-Jackson (with Victoria Winton), ‘Recent Investigations at Dickett’s Field, Yarnham’s Farm, Holybourne, Hants’, in A Very Remote Period Indeed: Papers on the Palaeolithic Presented to Derek Roe, edited by Sarah Milliken and Jill Cook, Oxford: Oxbow Books (2001), pp. 214–22.
Kate White, ‘How the New Logo Was Designed’, Friends of the Pitt Rivers Museum Newsletter, no. 40 (April 2002), p. 4.
Victoria Winton (with Julie Scott-Jackson), ‘Recent Investigations at Dickett’s Field, Yarnham’s Farm, Holybourne, Hants’, in A Very Remote Period Indeed: Papers on the Palaeolithic Presented to Derek Roe, edited by Sarah Milliken and Jill Cook, Oxford: Oxbow Books (2001), pp. 214–22.
Victoria Winton, Review of A Study of Lower Palaeolithic Stone Artefacts from Selected Sites in the Upper and Middle Thames Valley, with Particular Reference to the R. J. Macrae Collection, by Hyeong Woo Lee (Oxford, 2001), Oxoniensia, Vol. LXVI (2001), pp. 415–16.

Museum Seminars in Material Anthropology and Museum Ethnography

12 October 2001: Alison Clarke (Royal College of Art), ‘Tupperware: The Cinderella Story of a Global Artefact’.
19 October: Sarah Pink (University of Loughborough), ‘Gender Performativity and the Sensory Home’.
26 October: Elizabeth Ewart (University of Oxford), ‘Dresses and Shorts: Material Culture among the Panara of Central Brazil’.
2 November: Jane Moore (University of Liverpool), ‘“Charms and Funny Things”: The Life Stories of the Tibetan Collection at Liverpool Museum’.
9 November: Boris Wastiau (Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium), ‘The Making and Meaning of the Exhibition ExItCongoMuseum: Structuring a Reflection about Congolese Art and Colonialism in a Belgian Museum’.
16 November: Catherine Allerton (University of Oxford), ‘Life, Death, and Cloth: The Significance of Sarongs in Manggarai, Eastern Indonesia’.
23 November: Ratan Vaswani (Museums Association), ‘Migration, Manchester, Museums, and the Museums Association’. Followed by a question-and-answer session on ethics.
30 November: Christopher Evans (University of Cambridge), ‘Carrying Knowledge: Information Literacy and Model-Building amongst the Gurung of Nepal’.
18 January 2002: Nick Merriman (Institute of Archaeology, London), ‘Can Museums be All Things to All People? A Discussion of Access and Inclusion Initiatives in Museums’.
25 January 25: Peter Mitchell  (PRM), ‘Hunter–Gatherer Archaeology in the Lesotho Highlands, Southern Africa’.
1 February: Pierre Lemonnier (CNRS–CREDO, Marseille), ‘The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Technologie Culturelle and the Museography of So-Called Ordinary Artefacts’.
8  February: Daniel Rycroft (University of Sussex), ‘Representing Tribal Rebellion in Colonial India: Vision, Materiality, and Narrativity’.
15 February: Jas Elsner (Corpus Christi College, Oxford), ‘Collecting Pilgrimage Souvenirs in the Early Middle Ages’.
22 February: Tim Barringer (Department of the History of Art, Yale), ‘Colonial Gothic: John Lockwood Kipling and the Representation of Indian Craft Labour’.
1 March: Jonathan King (Department of Ethnography, British Museum), ‘Native Language and Identity in North America’.
8 March: Alison Brown (PRM) and Laura Peers (PRM and  ISCA), ‘Old Photographs and New Histories: Developing a Research Protocol with the Kainai Nation, Canada’.
19 April: Ngahuia Te Awekotuku (Department of Psychology, University of Waikato), ‘Ta Moko: Culture, Body Modification, and the Psychology of Identity’.
26 April: Christopher Chippendale (Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology), ‘ Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology: Towards a Quantitative History of its Archaeology Collections’.
3 May: Jennifer S. H. Brown (University of Winnipeg), ‘Kidnapped or Rescued?  Some Recent Repatriation Issues in Canada’.
10 May: Inge Daniels (Royal College of Art), ‘Beckoning, Racking, Scooping Luck: Luck, Agency and the Interdependence between People and Things in Japan’.
17 May: Andy McLellan (PRM) and Ann Nicol (PRM), ‘Going Interactive: Education and Access at the Pitt Rivers Museum’.

James A. Swan Fund
The Pitt Rivers Museum sponsors archaeological and anthropological fieldwork within areas of interest to the late James A. Swan, including the Later Stone Age prehistory of southern Africa and the study of the contemporary Bushman and Pygmy peoples of Africa. Research on museum collections relating to these fields may also be supported, as may the costs of publishing the results of fieldwork that has been aided by the Fund.
This year fourteen applications were received, but a shortfall in remittance of funds from Southern Africa left the Fund unable to address more than two of these, after covering the costs of research on the Museum’s own collections. External grants were awarded to Mr J. Hobart, University of Oxford (post-excavation analysis of Pitsaneng Shelter, Lesotho), and Professor Wendy James, University of Oxford (travel costs of two participants at the African Studies Association conference, Aursha, Tanzania). It is hoped that it will soon be possible to build up the Fund so that it can continue to play its historic role of supporting research in Africa in the fields of interest to James A. Swan.

Friends of the Pitt Rivers Museum
Report by Liz Yardley, Honorary Secretary
Once again the Friends enjoyed a very active year, with a good mixture of interesting talks, glimpses behind the scenes, outside visits, and fundraising events. The inaugural Friends art exhibition held during the October school half-term was an exciting new venture, giving the many artist Friends, inspired by the Museum, an opportunity to show their work in the Balfour Galleries, just before they closed. With several distinguished, and many more very enthusiastic, practitioners of painting, sculpture, textiles, basketwork, ceramics, photography, and jewellery, the display was, according to the Oxford Mail, ‘constructed in the wonderful eclectic style that is the Pitt Rivers’. Several artists generously donated work to an accompanying raffle and also held workshop sessions, attended by both the very young and the very old. A total of £500 was raised for the Museum’s education service. Another innovation was the new Friends welcome party, held on a Saturday morning. After a welcome from Friends chairman Donald Tayler, and an introduction to the Museum and its collections from Mike O’Hanlon and Julia Cousins, the new Friends were shown behind the scenes by conservator, Heather Richardson and assistant curator, Marina de Alarcón.
The Friends’ annual Beatrice Blackwood lecture was given by Barry Cunliffe, Professor of Archaeology in the University and one of the Friends longest-standing patrons. He delighted a capacity audience with tales of ‘Brittany and La Vie Sauvage—Continuity and Reinvention: Breton Identity through the Eyes of Archaeologists, Anthropologists, and Folklorists’. The Friends are again grateful to the administrator of the Inorganic Chemistry department for allowing the use of the lecture theatre free of charge, and to Donald and Ione Tayler for hosting an excellent supper.
The Friends’ lecture programme, organized by Megan Price, was full of variety and interest throughout the year. In October, Ed Carter of Linacre College gave an illustrated talk on ‘Textiles of Guatemala’. This was followed in November by ‘The Saharan Travel Journals of Hugh Clapperton (1822–25)’, by Jamie Bruce Lockhart, a former diplomat, traveller, and biographical author who vividly illuminated the excitement and dangers of early nineteenth-century African travel. Following a highly enjoyable Christmas Party, where guests were entertained by the Oxford Mummers, the new year began with Dr Martin Henig (Research Associate, Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford) speaking on ‘Romans at the Pitt Rivers? Religions of Roman Britain for the Anthropologist’. This was followed in March by a talk by Gilbert Oteyo, a research student at the Museum who had been the first beneficiary of the Kenneth Kirkwood Memorial Fund with a grant to collect material for the Museum from among the Luo of Kenya. In ‘The Disappearance of Luo Material Culture: The Case of Women’s Adornment’, Mr Oteyo gave a most interesting illustrated talk, explaining the significance of the artefacts he had collected. In May, Dr Ruth Barnes, of the Ashmolean Museum, gave an inspiring insight into Indonesian gift exchange with ‘Tusks and Textiles: Conspicuous Consumption in Adonara, Eastern Indonesia’. The last talk of the year was given by Sara Everett of the publishers Berg on ‘The Future of Anthropological Publishing: Writing and Getting Published’. The final event of the year was a very pleasant and informative visit to Kelmscott Manor and the Rollright Stones.
The Museum’s large European collections were celebrated in ‘The European Connection’, the second Kenneth Kirkwood Memorial Fund study day. The day was chaired by Chris Gosden and featured some fine speakers. In the morning, Professor Robin Briggs talked on ‘Ritual Healers and Doctors’ and, drawing on her research work among the lace-makers of the island of Burano, Lidia Sciama spoke on ‘Venetian Trade Networks’. These talks were followed by a delightful musical interlude, ‘The Pipers’ Tale’, superbly presented by Jean Pierre Rasle and Graham Wells on the Breton and Northumbrian pipes. After a buffet lunch, again generously donated by Marks and Spencer, Juliette Wood of  Cardiff University revealed the world of ‘Gypsy Witches and Celtic Magicians: The Work of Charles Leland and Lewis Spence’, before Hélène La Rue of the Pitt Rivers Museum and the Bate Collection concluded the day with a very lively presentation of ‘A Fantasie of Festivals’. We are again grateful to Rhodes House for hosting the event.
During Museums and Galleries Month in June, the Friends celebrated Local History Week by designing an illustrated trail entitled ‘Bones ‘n’ Stones’. Developed in consultation with Ollie Douglas, Andy McLellan, and Marina de Alarcón, the trail led visitors to the local Oxfordshire objects among the Museum’s displays. Several Friends have volunteered to run the Family Friendly Fun sessions on a Sunday afternoon. Their great reward is seeing the delight on the faces of the children and their parents, many of whom are visiting for the first time), as they discover new treasures in an interesting and entertaining way. Friends have also been involved in schools guiding and helping with holiday activities.
Anne Phythian Adams, Membership Secretary for six years and Newsletter Editor, Deborah Manley retired at the Friends Annual General Meeting in June; although they both remain on the Council. Adrienne Hopkins has taken over as Membership Secretary, while Carol Quarini is the new Newsletter Editor. Treasurer Richard Briant reported another successful year. Friends contributions to the Museum included £5000 for audio guides; £350 for a bursary from the Kenneth Kirkwood Fund; and £450 for the purchase of Guatemalan textiles. Between them, the art exhibition, the study day, and the Christmas party raised more than £1000 for the Friends’ funds. A generous contribution of £100 towards the costs of the Beatrice Blackwood Lecture and two other donations of £100 were also received during the year. Membership currently stands at 379 individual members, made up of  86 joint, 14 ordinary, and 66 concessionary members, a slight decrease on last year. The Newsletter was once again short-listed for the ‘Liveliest Newsletter Award’ of the British Association of Friends of Museums.

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Supported by the John Fell OUP Research Fund


(c) 2012 Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford