16. Report of the Curator of the Pltt Rivers Museum (Department of Ethnology) for the year endlng 31 July 1956

Curator: T. K. Penniman, M.A., Trinity Co!lege.
University Demonstrators and Lecturers in Ethnology: B.M. Blackwood, B.Sc., M.A., Somerville College; J.S.P. Bradford, M.A., Christ Church; A.J. Butt, B.Litt., M.A., D.Phil., Lady Margaret Hall.
Secretary to the Museum and Librarian: R.C. Gurden.

Friends of the Museum and of Miss Blackwood throughout the world will be glad to hear that the Visitatorial Board of the University has decided in favour of her retaining office for three years beyond 30 September 1956, the date on which she would ordinarily have retired. Thus, instead of the dreaded and melancholy duty of writing an appreciation of her past services, the Curator can rejoice with his Staff, and all friends of the Museum, that she will continue her work here in teaching and research, and in dealing with the arrears in the Regional and Subject card indexes, now nearing the half-million mark.

Dr. Audrey Butt, appointed as University Demonstrator and Lecturer in the place of Mr. W.C. Brice, who left us for Manchester, has been with us for a year, and has been a successful choice in every way, both in teaching and research, and in Museum work. Arrangements have been made for her to return to British Guiana in 1957 for a period including the Easter Vacation, Trinity Term, and the Long Vacation, so as to continue the research on which she was engaged before she joined our Staff

Mr. Anthony Wootton completed his two years of National Service in H.M. Forces, and returned to the Museum in October 1955, taking up the post of Assistant Secretary, a position for which he is well fitted by his previous education and by his work at headquarters in Germany. The appointment has proved to be very successful, and he is making good progress in spare time study for a University degree.

Mr. H.F. Walters has been promoted to be Chief Technician, the highest post in the technical grades, a long overdue recognition of his devoted services to the Museum, not only in carrying the burden of the many changes and developments which have occurred in his time, but in the great skill he has shown in the repair and restoration of the more delicate objects in the Museum, including the small and intricate mechanisms of our automatic musical instruments, such as musical boxes and singing birds, and the instruction he gives to other members of the Staff.

Mr. I.M. Allen took a course in Metallurgy in the School of Science at the City of Oxford College of Technology, Art, and Commerce, and successfully passed the examination in Metallurgy as an ancillary subject for the A.R.I.C. This has been most helpful to us in the metallographic and metallurgical work which the Museum is undertaking on its prehistoric material both for exhibition and for publication.

Long before this report is published, readers will have received notice of the publication of Number 8 of our Occasional Papers on Technology, Mr. H.H. Coghlan's 'Notes on Prehistoric and Early Iron in the Old World', with 220 pages of text, 57 text figures, and I6 pages of half-tone plates, mainly photomicrographs, at a cost of 25s. By 31 July 1956 all of the final revises in page proof had been passed and returned to the press. The book deals with the craft of the blacksmith and the processes needed to make iron useful, from the earliest times to about A.D. 1000, with illustrations of tools and methods, giving an idea of what the smith knew at various periods of history. The British Iron and Steel Research Association kindly introduced us to the Director of the Department of Research and Technical Development of Messrs. Stewarts & Lloyds, Limited, who generously allowed necessary metallographic and metallurgical analyses to be made in his Department by Mr. T.H. Williams, Manager, Chemical Research, and Mr. P. Whitaker, Manager, Metallographic Research, and we owe to them a valuable illustrated chapter on their reports. Mr. I.M. Allen contributes a chapter with definitions of metallographic and metallurgical terms, and a short account of an Eskimo knife of walrus ivory edged with pieces of cold-forged meteoric iron which was collected by Sir John Ross in 1818, with an illustrated description of his own successful forging of a billet of meteoric iron. As in other books in our series, he and Mr. K.H.H. Walters have done very valuable work over a long period in preparing illustrations for the press. This work has often involved their looking out suitable specimens here or elsewhere, and verifying their provenance before using them. Were it not for their interest and skill and devotion to the work in hand, we should not be able to continue our publications on our present scale. Fortunately, Mr. A. Wootton is with us again, and can share in the work of preparing our text figures.
Numbers 9 to 12 are already commissioned. Mr. R.D.G. Faudree has promised to write on 'The Physical Background of Pottery', Mr. A.C. Bains is engaged on a study of folk-bagpipes, including our Balfour collection, Miss Blackwood is preparing a study of 'Patterns and Techniques of the Melanesians of SW. New Britain', and Dr. Butt will deal with techniques of a tribe in British Guiana. Announcements will be made as numbers are due to appear.
During the year the Curator has added about 2,600 cards to the Subject Index, and Miss Blackwood has added about 3,500, Miss Blackwood being as usual responsible for the distribution and arrangement of the cards. From the beginning of this year we have confined ourselves to arrears, apart from entering new accessions in the books, and have taken time for a good deal of revision and documentation in the light of what has been learned since the original entries were made. Mr. R.C. Gurden, with the help of Mr. A. Wootton, has been responsible for transferring the current accessions from the books to duplicate cards, one for the Regional, and one for the Subject index, each month, and for keeping up to date the indexes of donors, lenders, and vendors. The Curator has long wanted to establish this system, so that when the time comes for him to go, he can rest assured that the card catalogues will never fall into arrears, and as much as he can spare of his remaining time will be used in completing and perfecting as far as possible the card indexes of the older material. Mr. Gurden has also begun a card catalogue of the large Gunther collection of Japanese Netsuke, first arranging them in numerical order for easy consultation, and then amplifying and explaining the descriptions given in Gunther's lists with the help of Weber's Ko-ji Ho-ten, Brockhous's Netsukes, Jonas's Netsuke, Japanese Art and Handicraft by Joly and Tomita, Gunther's own manuscript articles, and other sources. While the Japanese names and allusions are perhaps sufficient for connoisseurs,' we have found that translations, brief accounts of religious and magical or mythological ideas or beliefs or folktales, or references to where they may be found in full, have added greatly to our own knowledge and interest, and are a help to persons desiring an explanation of particular pieces without taking up too much time. Should we ever be able to publish the collection, these additions would no doubt help to bring these delightful examples of Japanese art and ingenuity before a larger public. In spite of much other work, Mr. Gurden has found time to prepare duplicate cards for over 350 netsuke, and to continue the catalogue of objects in the basement of the Examination Schools, this last being a dreary but useful task. In addition to helping with the current accessions, Mr. Wootton has also found time to do duplicated cards for a good number of the Parsons collection of locks and keys.

For the better ordering of our collections, both those exhibited and those in the reserve for research, Mr. H. F. Walters, ably helped by Mr. R.P. Rivers, has as usual contributed a very large part. In addition to his work in supervising the collections and taking active steps against all the evils that beset them when neglected, and seeing to the looking out, setting up, and return of many specimens for lectures and practical work, he has been able to keep ahead of our needs with cases and fittings from the workshop. A case with three glass sides 7 feet tall, 4 feet wide, and about 21/2 feet deep in the Lower Gallery has enabled Mr. Wootton to display attractively the large and gorgeous feather head-dresses whose care in unsuitable conditions was previously a considerable nuisance to us, and has given space for him to display and store all together our many bright and pleasing feather ornaments. Noting that this rearrangement left only one eye-sore in a 100-foot run, Mr. Walters decided to redecorate and rearrange the case containing the apparatus of the Bunyoro royal milk ritual, removing various extraneous accumulations of the past 30 years and arranging for a large label to give a general explanation of what remained.

In the second storey of the Library the rapidly growing runs of periodicals, many of them received in exchange for our own Occasional Papers on Technology, presented a problem that could no longer be met by makeshifts. At Mr. Gurden's suggestion, Mr. Walters and Mr. Rivers built a long combined bookcase and table under the windows of the middle bay for our big green folio cases of photographs, and rebuilt the big double-sided book-cases which had previously held them. Narrow bookcases backing against the ends of these took the old handsomely bound periodicals given by Sir John Evans, and the shelf-space now released will be adequate for some years to come. The most pleasing aspect of the work is that the whole floor looks more civilized and spacious for readers in all three bays, and the judicious arrangement of some of our more beautiful objects in isolation rather than in rows in cases adds a homelike appearance that our students enjoy.

For some time our collection of air-photographs in rough wooden boxes has been an eye-sore and a nuisance to consult. Last year's collection of the lamps, lighting, and fire-making appliances into the main Museum left a small room in the iron house free except for some large drawers of textiles. Mr. Walters decided to remove these and to put them together with all similar large cases of textiles, and then, with the assistance of Mr. Rivers, fitted the entire room from floor to ceiling with special shelves to suit the photographs. As he had planned, these shelves took the entire collection of over 150,000 photographs, and gave room for expansion. The new arrangement allows Mr. Bradford to proceed more easily with their proper cataloguing.

In addition two large cupboards on castors, each 8 feet high by 4 feet 4 inches wide by 2 feet 6 inches deep, were built, making eleven in all, and four smaller cupboards of the same width and depth, but 4 feet 6 inches tall, making a total of seven. As the time draws nearer when we may expect a new wing, these standard fittings are an increasing guarantee that we can move out of the way in good order without disrupting our work too much, and move back again without spending weary years in resorting.
The extra cases and fittings have allowed considerable present improvements in exhibition and storage. Soon after his return, Mr. Wootton began rearranging some of the more overcrowded exhibitions. In the Court, the large north-side wall cases containing bark-cloth were emptied and the contents removed for sorting and relabelling. While Mr. Rivers was redecorating the cases, the specimens were sorted, listed, and labelled, and a representative selection made, showing each area separately, according to the original idea of General Pitt Rivers, who often took the subject as the genus, and the areas as the species. For easy reference, a map was made to show all of the areas from which the Museum has bark-cloth, and the stored material was arranged by areas in large labelled cupboards, so that quick reference is very easy. To add interest and value to the exhibition, the wooden steps in the case were used to display tools and materlals for bark-cloth making. The material for this purpose was removed from one of the big free-standing cases, and the 'Rope, String, and Netting', housed in a line with the Music exhibitions, was transferred to this case, and completely rearranged by areas, and incorporated with various illustrations of techniques and styles from ancient Egyptian times until today. This move was very successful in that it opened the way for a clear run of Musical Instruments, and at long last ended the general post required for this purpose. Flutes, trumpets, and autophones were completed, both in exhibition and in store. Membranophones, percussive, frictional, and sympathetic, are all but finished. Apart from a large wall-case, strings and reed instruments remain to be done. In the near future, we can see the whole of the large Balfour collections of music incorporated successfully in the same way that we have done with light and fire. To complete the rearrangement of the north side, the large collection of primitive clothing was sorted and exhibited by areas, and the 45 feet of new arrangement completed the I00-foot run of modernized exhibitions. For all this, the storage material both in drawers and in the iron house was sorted and labelled clearly for quick and easy reference, and lists of about 500 labels were composed and typed for the printer. Temporary typed labels were placed on show while this was being done. We have already mentioned the new exhibition of featherwork and of various exotic ways of using birds or parts of birds. These exhibitions were enhanced by Mr. Wootton's coloured sketches of birds from which the ornaments were made, and by the colourless plastic stands and fittings with which Mr. Rivers added lightness and grace to the head-dresses.

In addition to exhibition work, Mr. Wootton made many drawings of artefacts and microsections for Mr. Allen's analytical work, and typed many reports and display labels for it, as well as doing a good deal of routine secretarial work, and assisting with the catalogue, and restoration work on ancient or other fragile specimens before exhibiting or storing them.

Besides regular work in setting up and putting away material for lectures and practical classes, and attendance on research students, Mr. I. M. Allen made chemical and metallographic analyses of a number of British Early Bronze Age weapons and implements, and placed twelve of them on exhibition with full metallurgical and metallographic details, including micrographs, at the same time filing complete reports of these and other material for future publication. Two bronze axes from Donsom in Vietnam, dated A.D. 40-50, lent by the Musée de l'Homme, were fully analysed and the data, including photomicrographs, placed in the Far Eastern section of our exhibitions of ancient metallurgy. Among work done for outside bodies, we may mention the analysis of a specimen from the National Museum of Southern Rhodesia to determine whether it was a runner from a casting or a copper wire end. This will be published in a forthcoming number of the Occasional Papers of the National Museum of Southern Rhodesia. Drillings were made from about twenty implements for spectrographic analysis for the Ancient Mining and Metallurgy Committee of the Royal Anthropological Institute, and the results, like those of other work we have done for them, have been of material help to us in our own work. For the same Committee, Mr. H.J. Case asked for tests on our Hardometer of several tin bronzes and arsenical coppers to find their relative hardness. Besides the help of the Committee, we are glad to acknowledge the help of Dr. S.R. Tayler of the Department of Geology and Dr. E.H. Hall of the Research Laboratory of Archaeology for some spectrographic analyses, and of Dr. F. M. Brewer of the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for some help in taking photomicrographs. Other of Mr. Allen's work includes the identification of an Oriental helmet of the fifteenth century bearing the mark of an arsenal in Constantinople, later modified in the sixteenth or seventeenth century to the use of an Eastern European nation such as Poland or Hungary, the identification of swords in the Berkeley bequest, one with Wolf's mark, another stamped 'Andrea Ferara', the completion of an exhibition of minerals represented in the Museum, and a considerable amount of restoration, notably on ancient cordage and netting, and on feathers, the former becoming firm and pliant, and the latter brought back to their clean natural appearance.

During the year Mr. K.H.H. Walters photographed 147 objects or groups of objects. From these and from negatives received from other sources 301 prints of various sizes and 240 standard lantern slides were made. A number of roll films have also been developed. In addition to being in charge of illustrations for our Museum publications, he also did considerable work, including dry mounting, for Mr. Allen's metallurgical programme and other exhibitions. On occasion, he has managed to replace missing pages by photography before books are sent for rebinding. This has been a very valuable service when we have had to keep more than one copy of a rare or out-of-print book which is very much used by students. Throughout the year he has acted as lanternist at all lectures, and helped in general Museum work.
Readers of our Reports may remember various efforts we have made in the past to transfer about 800 of our recordings on soft wax cylinders to a permanent form. Several institutions considered that the work ought to be done, and a catalogue was prepared, but for one reason or another the matter went no farther. As Mr. K. H. Walters has some experience in recording, he suggested that he might undertake the work, a little at a time. He is discussing with a Consulting Engineer the making of a special pickup to be used on one of our several old Edison Bell phonographs, so as not to harm the soft wax cylinders, and it seems likely that we shall be able to report some progress by next year in transferring these recordings on to tapes and so making them available to students of language and music.
Mr. R.C. Gurden continues to take an ever-increasing share of the burden of general administration, including the dealing with wages, keeping and presenting accounts to the auditors, dealing with exchanges and sales of publications, cataloguing the Library and looking after the regular needs of about 60 students, dealing with visitors and research students by himself or sending them to the appropriate person, and sorting and answering the ever-increasing flood of letters and paper-work without which we seem now to be unable to function. His ingenuity in solving problems of congestion or apparent lack of space in Museum or Library in a neat and orderly manner is quite astonishing, and we are constantly getting a great deal more into an area, and finding that it looks more spacious than before. Current accessions, special catalogues, including the Examination Schools, photographic negatives, and the Gunther collection, are kept steadily going and easy to consult. Above all, he has the ability to meet what promise to be difficult situations and to see that there is no difficulty, and to see that all goes with goodwill.
As usual, we give a very brief summary of some of our accessions.

From the Oxford University Expedition to Borneo, 1955-6, we obtained a representative collection from the Luar and Plieran Penan, giving an almost complete picture of the material culture of this tribe, of which little has hitherto been known. It includes apparatus connected with the food-supply, weapons, personal ornaments, and several very well-made baskets, of different patterns and shapes, serving various purposes. This tribe is noted for skill in basketry and its products are traded to other tribes. Some specimens are unfinished, showing the technique of manufacture. The collection was made by Mr. Guy Arnold of St. Peter's Hall, who is supplying us with full documentation, and preparing the material for publication. We were fortunate to obtain through Dr. Rodney Needham four especially fine cloths woven on Sumba Island in Indonesia, decorated by the ikat technique with symbols representing the wealth of aristocratic people who wore them, and from Lady Hosie a 16 mm. film from the islands of Bali and Java. From the same general area of the world, through the Government of the Federation of Malaya, we received on loan a large collection of air-photographs made by the late Major P.D.R. Williams-Hunt, many of which will be invaluable to the Museum in its study of the archaeology and ethnology of South-east Asia. Another welcome accession was the gift of sherds from sites excavated in Siam by Dr. H.G. Quaritch-Wales. From the Indian and Assamese region comes another large collection of textiles made by Sir Robert Reid, K.C.S.I., when Governor of Assam in 1937, more plaster casts of seals of the Harappa period, about 2500 B.C., and dolls from Kashmir and Kathiawar, given by H.H. the Maharajah of Dhrangadhra, K.C.I.E., a brass cire perdue rice measure from Bengal given by the late Archibald G.B. Russell, C.V.O., Clarenceux King of Arms, and a figurine from the Bengal-Assam border given by R.D.G. Faudree. Here we may also mention a charming butterfly-shaped brooch enamelled in blue and purple kingfisher feathers from Canton, and a toy frog of basket-work, presented by our old friend Miss Coltart, and a shirt of chain-mail collected in Aleppo by Colonel T. E. Lawrence for Mr. Charles Foulkes, sometime Keeper of the Tower Armoury. It was given by him to Mr. Lelio Stampa, for years an old friend of the Curator and many of his colleagues here. and to us bv his pupil, Mr. Frank A. Greenhill.

The Museum also benefited from the Oxford University Expedition to Morocco in 1955. Mr. T.H. Beckett of Worcester College collected from two villages, Takoutchen and Taoururt in the Marrakesh District, examples of pottery in general use, the shapes and decoration of which recall ancient Near Eastern and Mediterranean work. It is unusual in that it shows a combination of wheel- and hand-moulding, and some of it has a form of glaze which appears to be rare. Mr. Beckett took great pains to collect a series showing stages of manufacture of pottery, and for safety in transport had them baked in this unfinished condition. Such collections are not easy to obtain, as the makers require a good deal of persuasion to repeat processes over and over, and to allow unfinished work to leave them. The Museum owes a great deal to collectors from the time of Sir Richard Temple in the 1880s until now for such collections displaying stages of work, invaluable to the archaeologist, ethnologist, and student of technology. We are also indebted for a rug woven in a loop technique no longer practised. Mr. Beckett is giving us full documentation and will publish the collection.
Among other accessions from Africa, a noteworthy gift is that of our friend, the late Miss Marian R.P. Irvine, who procured for us a collection from Nyasaland, made at her request by Mr. E.C. Allen of the Universities Mission to Central Africa. Further gifts from that continent include a very interesting garment of bark-cloth from our pupil Mr. W.B. Helean, and a roll of bark-cloth from Mrs. D. Reeve, both collected in Tanganyika, further accessions from Kenya sent by another of our pupils, Mrs. Knowles, and additions to former gifts from Egypt by Mr. A.M. Abou-Zeid, another pupil.
Among specimens from America, we must mention especially a beautiful Hopi blanket from Mrs. Robert Aitken, who as Miss Freire-Marreco was the first of all our pupils for the Diploma in Anthropology. Miss Margaret B. Foote presented a water-colour sketch of a Blood Indian travois and tipi, made by her mother in 1895, Dr. Audrey Butt added to her already considerable gifts from the Akawaio tribe of British Guiana, and Dr. J. Eric S. Thompson of the Carnegie Institution sent us an interesting bag for maize seed and a monkey mask used by the Mixtec Indians in the Plume Dance, both from Mexico. The Museum has commissioned a collection from Indian tribes in Brazil, which is in transit at the time we write.

European accessions have not been many, but are of considerable interest. We are greatly pleased by Miss M. Parry Okeden's gift of a manuscript known as The Nun's Book, probably of the seventeenth century, giving directions for weaving watch-chains, each direction being illustrated with a sample of the finished work. We very much want to publish it, but so far the directions have defeated our best authorities in textiles. Apparently they are mnemonics for persons who knew all the basic methods and took them for granted before using the directions. So difficult and time-consuming are the processes laid down for the nuns' employment that we are tempted to add the sub-title 'or Satan Dismay'd' if the book ever reaches print. We also have to thank Miss Parry Okeden for a seventeenth-century endowment purse given by Sir James Howe to his wife on their marriage day in 1691, and examples of embroidery. From Mrs. Marcon we have welcomed a further gift of lamps and various interesting domestic appliances now obsolete, a dress-holder and mourning necklaces from the late Mrs. J.E. Chaney, an example of Sir David Brewster's Lenticular Stereoscope dated about 1860 from Miss Beatrice Blackwood, a swordstick from Mrs. L.R. Shilson, a beautiful Cretan dagger with a handle of sperm whale's tooth and silver-wrought scabbard from Mrs. W. de Lacy, and a most amusing table-lighter in the form of a knight in sixteenth-century armour with a musical box in the pedestal brought back from Germany by Mr. Anthony Wootton. The Museum added further volumes to the gramophone records made by H.M.V. in connexion with The New Oxford History of Music, and these are used each year in teaching.

Once more it is our pleasure to thank Mrs. H. G. Beasley for a final instalment of gifts from the Cranmore Muscum, unhappily destroyed in the late war. These are mainly from North America, Oceania, and Tibet, and many are of great rarity. Taking her gifts all together, we know of no other source from which the Museum collections could have been so greatly enriched.

Apart from taking the initiative and seeing to the continuance of various of the activities mentioned in this Report, the Curator took part in editing Number 8 of our Occasional Papers on Technology, and in work on the Catalogue of the Museum. He lectured in all three terms on Origins of Civilization, took some part in practical teaching, including a demonstration for candidates for the Diploma of the Museums Association, and continued to serve as Diploma Secretary for Anthropology, Interviewer of Research Students, and Secretary to Heads of Science Departments.

Miss Blackwood's work in editing and preparing the index for Number 8 of our Occasional Papers, and her considerable work on the Regional and Subject Indexes, including the addition of much extra information on many older specimens, have been mentioned. She lectured twice a week throughout the year, and gave a long practical class once weekly for students of the Diploma in Anthropology, and two shorter practical classes twice weekly to students working for the Preliminary Examination in the Honour School of Geography. In the former she was assisted by Mr. Bradford and Dr. Butt, and in the latter by Dr. Butt. In both Michaelmas and Hilary Terms, her general title was Lands and Peoples, the first term being devoted to Hunters and Herders and the second to Cultivators. These lectures were given both to Diploma and to Geography students. During Trinity Term, she gave The Higher Civilizations of Pre-Conquest America to Diploma students once each week. She also gave three lectures followed by museum demonstrations On Some Arts and Industries of British Africa for Overseas Cadets going to Africa, and three lectures and demonstrations on Ethnology of the Western Pacific for Cadets bound for that area. Outside the regular courses, she gave a demonstration on Ethnological Techniques relevant to Archaeology to members of the Museums Association Diploma course, and general talks on the Museum followed by demonstrations on selected material to a group from the Workers' Educational Association from Harwell, and to a party of African visitors at the request of the British Council.

 Visitors engaged in research on the Pacific collections were more numerous than usual, and Miss Blackwood spent a great deal of time in looking after them. Some of the work involved several days in collecting and discussing material for each visitor, and on occasion the preparation of a special card index such as that of objects in the Cook collection. She also was responsible for entering many new accessions in the books.

Among other activities may be mentioned the acting as Moderator for the Preliminary Examination in Geography in Hilary Term 1956, the compilation of 'Museum News' for Folk-Lore, vol. Lxvii, June 1956, pp. 124-7, and service on the Councils of the Royal Anthropological Institute and of the Folk-Lore Society. She was appointed by the University as its representative at the 32nd International Congress of Americanists in Copenhagen for August 1956, and also as Delegate from the Museum.

Mr. Bradford lectured once weekly in all three terms, his Michaelmas lectures being on Nomad Empires of Asia, the Hilary on The First Farmers in Europe, and the Trinity lectures on Tribal Life in Britain in the First Millennium B.C. He also assisted in the weekly practical classes in Ethnology, and gave a weekly practical class in Archaeology. During the three terms, he tutored twenty-six Geography pupils in Ethnology, and one pupil in archaeology. This year he also served as Chairman of Examiners for the Diploma in Anthropology.

During the year he gave eight external lectures; in August I955 to the Joint Meeting of the Classical Societies at Oxford on Aerial Discoveries on Classical Sites in Mediterranean Lands; in October 1955 to the Society of Antiquaries, on Fieldwork on Aerial Discoveries in Attica and Rhodes; in November to the Prehistoric Society on Neolithic Sites in South Italy; in January 1956, two lectures for the Delegacy of Extra-mural Studies, one on Early Civilizations in Cyprus and one on Roman Italy; in February to the University College of North Staffordshire branch of the Classical Association on Recent Discoveries in Air Archaeology, also in February to the Oxford University Art Club on Tribal Art, and in March to the Society of Hellenic Travel on Archaeological Discoveries in Dalmatia, Greece, and Rhodes.

Among other Museum activities, he assisted the Curator in displaying material for a visit by Professor K. de B. Codrington and his pupils, and for a visit by Professor Artsekhovsky of Moscow University. In March 1956, he helped to arrange for a lecture by Professor S.P. Tolstov, the Russian authority on Central Asian Archaeology. This was the first visit by a Russian archaeologist to Oxford for many years. He also assisted Professor Fraccaro, Rector of Pavia University, and Lord William Taylour in their Roman and Mycenaean studies by providing them with air-photographs from our collection, and similarly helped Dr. H.G. Quaritch-Wales with air-photographs of ancient sites in Siam, before and after his excavations there in the winter of 1956. To the students for the Museums Association Diploma he gave a demonstration on Air-photographs and the Archaeologist.

His publications included 'Mapping two thousand Etruscan Tombs from the Air' in the Illustrated London News for 16 June 1956, pp. 736-8, 'Fieldwork on aerial discoveries in Attica and Rhodes, Part I' in The Antiquaries Journal for January-April 1956, pp. 57-69 (Part II follows in the autumn number), 'Aerial Mapping of Ancient Civilizations' in Shell Aviation News, July 1956, pp. 2-7, and various reviews of books in The Times Literary Supplement, Science Progress, Discovery, The Listener, Man, &c. He also completed the proof corrections in his book Ancient Landscapes.

In the field, Mr. Bradford ground-checked his aerial discoveries in Attica, Rhodes, and Cyprus for seven weeks in August-September 1955, being aided by a gift from the Craven Committee at Oxford. For the summer of 1956 he has been awarded grants from the Higher Studies Fund of the University and from the British Academy (on behalf of the Pilgrim Trust Fund) to ground-check further aerial discoveries of ancient sites in Italy, and to accept an invitation from the Italian Air Ministry to study their photographic archives. He continued to keep watch on local discoveries in gravel pits round Oxford, and visited a new one at Standlake several times in July to plan Romano-British and Iron Age enclosures found there.

He continued to serve as a member of the Board of the Faculty of Anthropology and Geography, and on the Council of the Royal Anthropological Institute, on the Motya (Sicily) Committee of Oxford University, and on the Deserted Mediaeval Villages Research Group. Further progress was made with the proposal for an annual lecture to commemorate the life and work of the late Sir John Myres. Mr. Vice-Chancellor has given his gracious support to the proposal, and New College has kindly consented to the holding of the lecture there. It is hoped to launch a general appeal for funds to endow it in the autumn.

Dr. Audrey Butt in her first year here gave a lecture course on Amenndian Tribes of the Guianas, South America, and another on The Material Culture of the Special Area (East Africa), both for students of the Diploma in Anthropology, and in each term assisted Miss Blackwood and Mr. Bradford in practical courses for Diploma and Certificate students. She took twelve students for tutorials to prepare them for the Preliminary Examination in the Honour School of Geography.

In museum work, she sorted and checked ear, nose, and lip ornaments in storage, also a large section of necklaces and baskets stored in the Court. She is now working on the large collection of charms and magical objects so as to make reference to them easier and quicker, and preparing an album from her own negatives and those lent by Mr. David Attenborough of the B.B.C. to show all the processes of making a woodskin canoe by the Akawaio of British Guiana. With Miss Blackwood, she is making a file of reference cards with full details for many sets of lantern-slides. This will ensure the permanent preservation of many points of significance over and above the titles they bear.

During the year she lectured to the Royal Anthropological Institute, and published the substance of the leceure in Man for April I956 with the title 'Ritual Blowing. "Taling", a causation and cure of illness among the Akawaio'. She has also prepared a long article on the economic activities of the Akawaio, and is assisting Mr. H.J. Braunholtz of the British Museum in an article on Rock Paintings in British Guiana.

In describing the activities of the Technical Staff, it may be noted that these were over and above the work of looking out, setting up, and putting away material for lectures and practical classes, a task that takes the best part of three full days a week during Term. Speaking of the youngest and oldest, readers will have seen in how many activities our youngest apprentice, Mr. R.P. Rivers, has taken a helpful part. He is doing very well, both in the Museum and at the City Technical College, and has proved to be most responsible, as well as able. To Mr. F.J. Nipress, our oldest and liveliest member, all of our visitors are grateful for his kindly helpfulness, and we are grateful for the easy and cheerful way in which he performs so many services that enable us all to get on with our work unhindered and untroubled.

There were over 7,500 visitors to the Museum, apart from many research students, including 1,752 children from 65 schools.


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