15. Report of the Curator of the Pitt Rivers Museum (Department of Ethnology) for the year ending 31 July 1952

Curator: T.K. Penniman, M.A., Trinity College.
University Demonstrators and Lecturers in Ethnology: B.M. Blackwood, B.Sc., M.A., Somerville College; J.S.P. Bradford, M.A., Christ Church; W.C. Brice, M.A., Jesus College.
Librarian and Secretary: R.C. Gurden                                
Our many friends throughout the world will be glad to know that during the past year an entirely new glass roof was put on to the main court of the Museum, and so at last we are able to remove for good the covers of waterproof cloth which hid so much of our valuable series of Stone Age Techniques and Industries. Through the kindness and forethought of the University Surveyor, Mr. John Miller, this work was done at the same time as the rewiring of the whole building, in which the lighting system was installed in 1904 through the generosity of the Executive Committee of the British Medical Association in return for hospitality shown to them by the University and the Pitt Rivers Museum. We took the opportunity to add to our very large collection of lamps and lighting appliances some of the old carbon filament lamps which made ‘No light, but only darkness visible’, and also some of the early gas-filled lamps. Besides the complicated business of synchronizing the two licences and the operations of the two firms (Messrs. Haywards Ltd., and Messrs. Hill, Upton & Co.), Mr. Miller enlisted their good will in working through the roof from the top outside, and thus avoided extensive scaffolding, an utter impossibility in so overcrowded a building. All of us in the Museum wish to put on record our gratitude to Mr, Miller, Mr. Williams, and those of their staff who helped the firms concerned to carry out highly complicated operations at a height of 60 feet and more with a minimum of dislocation to our normal work, and of their staff, we owe especial gratitude to Mr. Thomas Hogg and to Mr. Eric Jackson. Our own staff dealt with such dismantling and replacing as was inevitable, and when the vibration of the roof ceased and no more dust fell, cleansed the cases inside and out. Mr. H.F. Walters planned these operations so well, that in spite of the extra work, the usual thorough inspection and treatment of all material was accomplished, though, of course, at the expense of some new work that we had expected to do.

While Mr. Walters was dealing with material within our area, Mr. Brice and Mr. Gurden made a considerable number of journeys to our outpost in the basement of the Examination Schools, and besides bringing back material that required treatment, listed all of the objects in one of the three storage rooms, and are continuing with the other two. This work is somewhat depressing and inconvenient in cramped area underground, and their persistence and devotion to duty in so unattractive a form gives the Curator great satisfaction in the generation which will follow him in the care of the valuable collections of the University. The collections in the Examination Schools are those which were formerly in Museum House in territory belonging to Inorganic Chemistry. After a temporary loan to Social Anthropology, this building is now to be pulled down for the much needed expansion of Chemistry.

In the main building, Mr. Bradford sorted and rearranged thirty desk cases in the Middle Gallery, and what is more important, supervised the orderly arrangement in the cabinet drawers beneath them. Mr. Allen and Mr. Wootton relined the cases, sorted several thousands of objects by areas under their subjects, and made metal label-holders for each drawer, so that a vast amount of time is saved in finding material in this gallery. The subjects for the arrangement and labelling of which Mr. Bradford made himself responsible were Cosmetics, Combs, Hair-pins, Traps, Fishing Gear, Coinage and Substitutes, Wooden Locks and Keys (following the exhibition of Metal Locks and Keys previously arranged by Miss Blackwood), Primitive Surgical Instruments, Primitive Medicines, Toys, and Games. In addition to these, he revised the arrangement of various kinds of Tools, including a case of Primitive Adaptations of European Materials as Tools, and also revised the exhibition of Ornaments denoting Personal Status. To complete the series of Personal Ornaments, Mr. Allen looked out, arranged, and labelled a very interesting exhibition of Techniques in the Making of Ornaments in various parts of the world.

In the Main Court, Mr. Brice rearranged in six large cases showing Helmets, Basketry, Human Form in Savage, and in Barbaric and Civilized Popular Art, and Religious Emblems and Ritual Objects. Mr. H.F. Walters was responsible for the redecoration of these cases, and also found time to make a large new display case for one of the enormous head-dresses from the Society Islands brought back by Captain Cook, and to find a suitable place to show it.

In the Top Gallery, Miss Blackwood brought up to date the information on the screens illustrating the archaeology of Pre-Conquest America.

Invaluable work has been done by Mr. Allen in the restoration and cleaning of a large number of metal objects in the Court, and in the Galleries, including work on the Parsons Collection of locks and keys, helmets, lamps, and lighting appliances, and he continues steadily with this work, including recent accessions as they come in. He has installed a good small laboratory including electrolytic apparatus, and continues work on the collections whenever he can find opportunity from numerous demands on his time. With Mr. Gurden, he picked out about 2,000 of our books with leather or part leather binding, treated about 200 of them with a 7-20 per cent. aqueous potassium lactate solution to offset the action of sulphuric acid produced from the gradual absorption of sulphur dioxide from the air, and lubricated all of them with a dressing made up from a recipe used by the British Museum. In addition, about 30 or more vellum bindings were cleaned, and many pages of books were made clean from disfiguring marks. While he was cleaning specimens, Mr. Wootton was attending to the labels, doing new ones for these objects and many others to replace those that have suffered the injuries of time.

All such work, of course, has to be fitted in by all members of the staff with the teaching programme, as Mr. H.F. Walters and all of the technical staff are engaged in the looking out and preparation of material for lectures and practical classes every day during term, and what comes out also has to go back.

Besides organizing a considerable amount of the stored material to make it more available for teaching, and to make possible the rearrangement of the exhibited collections, the Curator has added 6,500 cards to the Subject Index, Miss Blackwood has added 3,000, apart from cards she prepared for both the Subject and the Regional Indexes from the present year’s accessions, and Mr. Brice has found time in his first year to add about 500. Miss Blackwood has been responsible as usual for the sorting and arranging of all cards in both indexes, which by now contain about 270,000 cards.

In the Photographic Studio, Mr. K.H.H. Walters has photographed 185 objects in the Museum. From these, and various roll films brought in, he has produced 266 paper prints of various sizes up to 12 x 10 in., and 146 lantern slides. 118 prints have been mounted on card, many of them being photographs taken by Mr. Bradford during his last expedition to Apulia. Mr. Walters has fitted these into binders, and so arranged them that they can quickly be found for the forthcoming publication of the expedition. Especially good work was done for the plates of the Curator’s book on Ivory. Other interesting work has lately been the production of colour slides, using Dufaycolor film, and so far, this comparatively inexpensive material has proved very satisfactory, showing the true colour and texture of the material and not printer’s colours.

Mr. Gurden has found time in addition to his many other activities to continue the cataloguing by subjects and regions of the negatives made since Mr. K.H.H. Walters became our photographer. He had made good progress in finding out and completing imperfect runs of periodicals, and has done us good service in selecting a considerable number of rare and valuable books from the Library, and taking them from the open shelves. He has continued to deal with the exchange of our Occasional Papers on Technology to about forty Institutions and Societies, as well as with their sale. He has reached the letter R in the shelf index, the author index being complete, as well for the books as for periodicals which give a whole number to an author. Apart from all routine connected with a library, he deals with all accounts and wages, the general correspondence of the Museum, and duplicates bibliographies and other material connected with teaching. Work in the Museum and assistance to readers who use the Museum as well have made him thoroughly familiar with the intimate interlocking of the Balfour Library and the Pitt Rivers Museum.

This year has seen the publication of Number 5 of our Occasional Papers on Technology under the title Pictures of Ivory and other Animals Teeth, Bone and Antler, with a text of 40 pages and 20 pages of half-tone plates. For the past ten years, the Curator has been collecting examples from many sources, and getting sections cut and microsections mounted by Mr. J.R. Lomax. Some of these microsections were photographed by Mr. William Chesterman, and others by Mr. A.W. Dent and Mr. Lomax, while Mr. K.H.H. Walterts made photographs of other specimens and enlargements of parts of them. The photo-micrographs and photographs with a low magnification are intended to emphasize features that are apparent under a good reading-glass, or sometimes to the naked eye, and are shown and explained to help Curators and Keepers of large collections to identify materials. Questions of styles, periods, workmanship, and the like are outside the scope of the book, but references to standard authors on these subjects may be found in the bibliography. The Curator’s exhibition of some of this material has proved helpful in the Museum, and to others, and therefore it was decided to publish. The book may be obtained from the Museum at a cost of ten shillings. Earlier numbers in the series are The Manufacture of a Flint Arrow-head by Quartzite Hammerstone, by Sir Francis H.S. Knowles, Bart. (at 5s.), The McDougal Collection of Indian Textiles from Guatemala and Mexico, by Laura E. Start (15s.), The Technology of a Modern Stone Age People in New Guinea, by Beatrice Blackwood (10s.6d.), and Notes on the Prehistoric Metallurgy of Copper and Bronze in the Old World, by H.H. Coghlan, with chapters by Dr. E. Voce and by the Curator (15s.). Sales increase as the years go by, justifying our belief that there are a good many people wanting exact information of a kind that can be experimentally tested.

Outstanding among our accessions for the year has been the gift of a magnificent Hawaiian feather cloak by Mrs. H.G. Beasley, by the wish of her late husband. We owe much to their generosity, both for additions to the Museum chosen with great discrimination, and for many rare old books of voyages and travels which are of the greatest importance as some of them deal with material in the collections here. The cloak (Aluula) is made with a foundation of close network of Olaná fibre (Touchardia Latifolia), and is completely covered with small feathers from two species of Honey-sucker: the yellow and black from the Oo (Acrolocercus noblis), the yellow feathers found only in two small tufts on the wings; the red from the Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea). Each feather is tied in with fibre. These cloaks were worn only by persons of high rank. The entire cloak, 8 ft. 10 in. by 3 ft. 11 in., is in the same condition as when it was made. It was given by Kekaluohi of Lahina, the lady premier (‘who in power and rank is next to the king’) of King Kamehameha 111, to Sir George Simpson as a present for his wife, on 24 March 1842. The gift was made for services rendered by Sir George Simpson, then a Governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company, in connexion with foreign claims against the Hawaiian Government. The cloak was bought by the late Mr. H.G. Beasley for the Cranmore Museum from Mrs. Ross Huddon, the great-grand daughter of Sir George Simpson, in June 1930. We realize our good fortune in receiving such a perfect, well documented, and rare gift, and have displayed it in a specially designed case with fluorescent lighting and with curtains to prevent the colours from fading when the cloak is not illuminated for inspection. Mr. H. F. Walters arranged the draping and fixing in position, Miss Blackwood wrote an historical label with full references, and Mr. Wootton made a coloured scale drawing of the cloak fully extended, and a coloured drawing of the birds made by the late Professor Balfour is shown in the case.
From the Hawaiian Islands also came a ukulele, in good playable condition, of the type made by Portuguese in the islands from about 1879. This was lent by Mr. B. V. Todd. Another noteworthy gift from the Oceanic area was a very fine carved Maori door lintel, collected by Mr. John Sanderson before the Tarawera eruption which destroyed the famous pink and white terraces in June 1876. This, with other good material from New Zealand and from Australia, was from the Rev. Finlay Sanderson, son of the collector.
Among the most noteworthy accessions from the Asiatic region was Mrs. Dorothy Mackay's gift of the lantern slides used by her late husband, Mr. E. J. H. Mackay, whose work in Egypt, Palestine, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley has contributed so greatly to the study of the origins of civilization. The gift includes I87 of Mohenjo-daro, and I09 from Chanhudaro, together with 68 negatives from the first site, and 38 from the second, with the addition of 9 photomicrographs of the bead-drilling process at Chanhu-daro. We had the pleasure of Mrs. Mackay's company at the Museum for a week while she was labelling and cataloguing the collection. A most astonishing and welcome gift was a gown and head-dress from Bethlehem collected by General Sir Charles Warren when he was excavating for the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1870. Attached to the head-dress as the owner's dowry are coins from the fifth century B.C. to modern tirnes, including Attic drachmae, Roman Republican and Imperial coins, coins of several of the Byzantine Emperors, others from various of the Muslim Dynasties, from Cyprus, Venice, Hungary, Denmark, Poland, Spain, and other places at various times in their histories. These coins were identified by Mr. C. M. Kraay and Mr. A. Thompson of the Heberden Coin Room in the Ashmolean Museum. A substantial volume of history could be written round this cap if all the coins were put in chronological order and their times described, and there would be surprisingly few gaps in the continuity, considering the way they were apparently collected and sewn on. It was given by the daughter of the collector, Mrs. Watkin Williams. In contrast with this history was that of a pair of bracelets given by Mrs. A. R. Nye. They belonged to Gaidiliu, a Kabui sorceress in Assam, who was captured in 1932 while helping the Sema Naga. Among this interesting woman's stock in trade was a basket full of notebooks, in which she pretended to write, an accomplishment which filled the Nagas with awe. She always took care, however, when sending one of her written messages, to send with it a trusted friend, who knew what she meant to say, and pretended to read out her message. These books had previously been given to us by Mr. J. P. Mills, to whom, with Professor J.H. Hutton, and Sir Robert Reid, we are indebted for our very large and well-documented collections from Assam. The gift reminded us, too, of another old friend and benefactor of the Museum, Sir Charles Pawsey, of Kohima, who gave the bracelets to Lieut.-Col. A.R. Nye, M.C., the donor's husband. A further accession from Assam was a large bronze bowl a foot across, fluted, with a procession of elephants below the flat rim, cast by the Thado Kuki by the cire perdue process. This was placed on loan by Mr. J. P. Mills. At his request the Curator secured an analysis of the bronze from Dr. E. Voce, who has helped the Museum greatly in this way before, including the work he did for our publication on Prehistoric Metallurgy. Going farther east, we have been fortunate to receive from Dr. Alfred Buhler, Head of the Textile Department of the Basel Museum fur Volkerkunde, specimens of cloths done by the 'double ikat' process, of which we had no examples. These include three pieces from Bali, and one from Gujarat for comparison. In return, the Museum sent an Ashanti silk cloth. We were very glad, as well, to receive from Mr. C. G. Gibson-Hill, of the Raffles Museum at Singapore, examples from Kelantan illustrating the batik process.

We have to thank Lieut.-Col. E. L. Harrison for two Javanese puppets, a male and a female, delightful figures used in the wayang golek (marionette plays). Again, Miss Laura Start, author of our publication of the McDougall textiles, gave us a very fine piece of Chinese needle embroidery worked in the neighbourhood of Canton in the late nineteenth century, showing an eagle on a branch, most exquisitely worked in silks on satin. Finally, from Asia, we have to note the gift of Mr. Patrick Millen of broken pottery animals from his re-excavation of a cairn in the Toda country in the Nilghiri Hills. These puzzling little animals with their long snouts and horns, and holes for eyes, are in exactly the same style as some we have from Dr. Griffith Evans, who re-excavated a cairn in 1881 in the same general area, and gave us the figures in 1930.
Far and away the largest and most important gift from the Americas is that of the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum, from whom we have Chimu beakers, stated by Mr. Allen to be of silver and copper, a fly-whisk whose socket is an alloy of silver and copper with some gold, according to Mr. Allen, a wooden human figure from Chancay, finely decorated pottery in the Nazca, Ica, Mochica, Coastal Tiahuanaco, and Inca styles, and a good many pieces of textiles of Inca and other periods, some of great beauty and ingenuity. Two pieces on which metal rectangles are sewn have been examined by Mr. Allen, who has determined that one set is an alloy of gold and copper, and the other of silver and copper. Miss Blackwood made the selection, and had the unrivalled help of Miss Laura Start on the many technical points. Once more, we are happy to thank the Wellcome Museum for its continued generosity. Mrs. Elsie McDougall added to her already extensive gifts that of a fine series of masks and photographs of them in use, from Mexico and Guatemala, and while on the subject of masks, we remember the fine ancient stone mask of Aztec type from the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum. Another considerable gift from Central America, collected by Lieut.-Col. E. L. Harrison and Miss Marion Harrison while the family was living in Costa Rica between 1880 and 1903, includes costumes, gourds, boxes, pottery, bags, and toys from both Costa Rica and Guatemala, all showing evidence of great care in preservation and documentation. We are very grateful, too, to Miss Helen Roberts, the eminent musicologist, and a good friend to the Museum, for the gift of the phonographs and equipment used by her for many years in her own recordings of the music of primitive peoples. From Mr. E. T. Leeds we have ancient beads and arrowheads from graves at Cabrizos in Bolivia, and some charming modern fish-scale flowers from the same state. Lastly from the Americas, we have to thank Colonel Shirley of Ettington Park in Warwickshire for the loan of an old collection of specimens from the Eastern Woodlands Area of North America. Of these, the finest is a man's coat of caribou skin, cut on eighteenth-century European lines, with painted double curve and other motifs, the pigments being bound with fish roe. Mr. G. E. S. Turner's label reads: 'Said to have been worn by "the King of the Cherokee Indians" at the coronation of George III (1761), this coat is of the type apparently made only by the Naskapi Indians of northern Quebec and Labrador. No Cherokee attended the coronation of George III, but three chiefs visited London from Carolina in 1762, and it is possible that the coat was worn by their leader, Outacity, Ostenaco or Mankiller, although no contemporary evidence has yet been found. Naskapi coats were traded to other tribes. The decoration of this specimen is unusually fine.' Mr. Turner is continuing research on this and the rest of the collection, and we take the opportunity of once more thanking him for the exact documentation of several more of our older American Indian specimens, and for adding the cards to the catalogue.
Among African specimens we should first mention the continued gifts of our very old friend, Mr. J. A. Swan. This year he has collected a most useful set of stone implements illustrating the Mesolithic in South Africa, including a really beautiful little drill of chalcedony of Bushman type, and other Bushman implements. The Museum was glad to receive further Kikuyu specimens collected by the late W. Scoresby Routledge in the early years of this century from his residuary legatee, Mr. John Harington, well documented, and many of them published in With a Prehistoric People, the Akikuyu of British East Africa, by W. Scoresby Routledge and Katherine Routledge, London, 1910. Major R.P. Elderton gave us specimens from the Sudan, of which the most interesting were weapons from the battle at El Fasher, Darfur, in July 1916. The most astonishing was a whaling rifle, presumably obtained by barter at Suakin or elsewhere on the Red Sea, and carried more than 1,000 miles by camels to El Fasher. The nearest proper ammunition may have been in England. Other African material from the Congo was given by the Wellcome Historical Medical Museum, chosen by Mr. Brice, and an Ivory Coast mask from the same source. We have to thank Mrs E.V. Blasdell for bead work from various South African tribes, Mr. C.C. Reining for a one-stringed violin and trough zither from Tanganyika, Professor G.D. Hale Carpenter for a horn and rattles from Uganda, and Mr. I.M. Allen for a fine dagger with a horn handle, from Abyssinia. Through the good offices of Sir Francis H.S. Knowles we were able to buy a beautifully carved Ashanti cup in the form of a human head, said to have been used by former kings of Ashanti. We are glad to be able to tell the many friends of Sir Francis Knowles that he has improved greatly in health, and is now beginning to come to the Museum again. Another purchase was from Gallo (Africa) Limited of records of African music made under the direction of the African Music Society. These make a useful addition to the collection of European and Oriental music for lectures and the instruction of students.
A few of the more interesting European accessions may now be mentioned. Through the kindness of Mr. G. E. S. Turner, the Curator was able to enlist the help of Konservator Ørnulv Vorren of the Tromsø Museum in one of the problems arising in his book on ivory, bone, and antler. Some of the sections of reindeer antler cut by the Curator's direction showed so much spongy material that he was puzzled to know how the Palaeolithic hunters could cut such large harpoons with a circular section from them, and it occurred to him that the Lapps domesticate reindeer and castrate them. Accordingly, he asked the Konservator if he could procure specimens of antler showing the effects, if any, of castration. 'I'he Konservator sent specimens of uncastrated and castrated reindeer antler which clearly displayed the yearly increase in sponginess after castration, and also sections which showed that the barren female had a much smaller spongy centre than the lactating female with calf. The Palaeolithic harpoons are, of course, cut from the wild reindeer antler. From Lapland also came a very fine birchwood bowl with incised decoration, given by Sister Syrena Poromaa of Karesuando, who received it from the late Sara Nutti, a Lapp. Sir John Linton Myres gave a collection of pottery whistle figurines collected in the Balearic Islands and south-west Russia; Sir James Thorold, Bart., brought us two very fine duelling pistols from Paris, and two from Doncaster, the property of his late grandfather, and Mr. A.E. Toms a good early percussion gun made by D. Egg of London. An interesting accession was a set of sixteen latten bells from Britwell Priory and Salome, and Brightwell Baldwin, in Oxfordshire, for horses and wagons. These lovely toned bells were the gift of Mr. Charles J. B. Stopes. We mention the gift of a nineteenth-century flour-bin by Mr. E.T. Leeds and record its probable maker ,W. Popple Cooper, of Eyebury.
During the year we learned that the Folk Museum at St. Fagans near Cardiff had purchased and was setting up in its grounds a farmhouse and buildings from Llangennith in Gower, and it seemed appropriate to deposit there a truckle cart with solid wheels which once came from the same village, and belonged to the same period.
The Curator lectured once weekly in all three term on ‘The Origins of Civilization’, and continued to serve as Diploma Secretary for Anthropology and Interviewer of Research Students, and as Secretary to the heads of Science Departments. One outside address was given to the Conference of the Museums Association in July 1952 on the History and General Policy of the Pitt Rivers Museum, which will appear in the Museums Journal, and the Curator and staff were at home to members of the Conference on Wednesday, 23 July. As well as representing the Pitt Rivers Museum, the Curator was a Delegate from the University Museum, together with Dr. S.G.P. Plant and Mr. G.E.S. Turner. In addition to the publication of Pictures of Ivory and other Animal Teeth, Bone and Antler, previously mentioned, the Curator published in 1952 a new and revised edition of A Hundred Years of Anthropology with 112 pages of extra matter, to which Miss Blackwood contributed a chapter entitled 'Americanist Studies', and Dr. J.S. Weiner a chapter on 'Physical Anthropology since 1935’. In writing on Social Anthropology the Curator had the help of the manuscript of a book on Social Anthropology, since published by Professor Evans-Pritchard. A great deal of help on the long Bibliography was given by Mr. Gurden.
Miss Blackwood lectured in Michaelmas and Hilary Terms twice weekly to students for the Diploma in Anthropology and to students in the Honour School of Geography, her general title being 'Lands and Peoples', and the terminal titles being 'Hunters and Herders' and 'Cultivators'. In this last, she took the opportunity of asking Mr. Brice to give six lectures on areas of which he has had recent personal experience. With Mr. Brice, she gave practical classes to Geographers immediately after each lecture, and with Mr. Bradford and Mr. Brice gave practical classes once weekly to Diploma students. In Trinity Term she lectured once weekly on 'The Higher Civilizations of Pre-Conquest America', once weekly on 'Material Culture of East Africa', the special area for Diploma Students, and gave three lectures to Colonial Service Cadets on 'Arts and Industries of British Africa'. As usual, she gave liberally of her time to numerous students and research workers, including the looking-out and listing of numerous specimens for Sir John Myres, who unfortunately is unable to visit the Museum. She served on the Council of the Royal Anthropological Institute, the Council of the Folk-Lore Society, the Council for British Archaeology, the British Ethnography Committee, the Organizing Committee for the XXXth International Congress of Americanists, and as one of the two National Secretaries for Great Britain on the Permanent Council of the International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences. She is attending the Americanist Congress at Cambridge as a Delegate from the University, and the International Congress at Vienna as a Delegate from the Museum. Among her publications for the year are a review of Material Culture of Kapingamarangi by Te Rangi Hiroa (Sir Peter H. Buck), Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Bulletin 200, Honolulu 1950, in the American Anthropologist, vol. 53, no. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1951,pp.549-50, and a review of The Archaeology of the Santa Elena Peninsula in South-west Ecuador by G. H. S. Bushnell, Occasional Papers of the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, no. 1, 1951, in Nature, vol. 170, 12 July 1952. In addition to writing the chapter on 'Americanist Studies' in the Curator's 'Hundred Years', she also indexed this chapter and Dr. Weiner's, and assisted the Curator as editor of Number 5 of our Occasional Papers on Technology.
Mr. Bradford lectured once weekly in Michaelmas Term on 'Nomad Empires of Asia', in Hilary Term on 'City, Village, and Field in Eastern Asia', and in Trinity Term on 'The Study of Tribal Art, and the Influence of Ancient and Modern Trade'. He gave 'Masterpieces of Tribal Art in the Pitt Rivers Museum' as his Presidential address to the Oxford University Anthropological Society, and also gave the lecture to the University Archaeological Society and to the Berkshire Archaeological Society. He also gave the Inaugural Lecture on 'The Iron Age in England' to the Training Excavation at Hunsbury, Northants., sponsored by the Council for British Archaeology. With Miss Blackwood and Mr. Brice he gave practical instruction to Diploma students throughout the year, and gave 42 tutorials to students taking Ethnology for the Preliminary Examination in the Honour School of Geography. He examined as Moderator in the Geography Preliminary, 36 out of 53 candidates choosing Ethnology, and examined for the Diploma in Anthropology. For the Board of the Faculty of Literae Humaniores he examined a candidate for the D.Phil. on 'Some Aspects of the Romano-British Rural System of the Lowland Zone'. His publications included 'Progress in Air Archaeology' in Discovery, June 1952, chapters on primitive methods of building, &c., in A History of Technology edited by Dr. Charles Singer and E.J. Holmyard, reviews in Man of The Fung Kingdom of Sennar by O.G.S. Crawford, The Kharga Oasis by Miss G. Caton-Thompson, and Photographies aeriennes by P. Chombart de Lauwe; and reviews in the Burlington Magazine of Ancient British Art by Piggott and Daniel, and of Herdsmen and Hermits by T.C. Lethbridge. He gave a broadcast on 'Air Photography and Archaeology' with special reference to its application to Canada, in French, for the French-Canadian programme (Radio Ottawa) of the North American service of the 13 B.C. He continued field work on sites discovered from the air by the late Major Allen in Southern England, involving personal visits throughout the year. He also continued work on the preparation of the Research Report of the Society of Antiquaries dealing with his Apulian Expedition, 1949-50, and was awarded a grant by the Trustees of the Arnold Historical Research Fund for research on Roman and Mediaeval pottery in France and Italy in connexion with the Report. Museums at Faenza, Bordighera, &c., are to be visited to compare the Apulian material with other important series. The Pitt Rivers Museum has made a further grant in support of this work, which will be done after his visit to the Vienna Congress, at which he represents the Prehistoric Society and the University Anthropological Society. During the year he has visited the R.A.F. Central Print Library and the Hunting Aerosurveys to select photographs to add to our collections of air photographs. Mr. P.D. Williams Hunt, Advisor on Aborigines in Malaya, has also deposited his important collection of air photographs for safe keeping with this collection.
In Michaelmas Term Mr. Brice lectured once weekly on 'Peoples and Customs of Asia Minor', in Hilary Term on 'Caravan Trade of Western Asia', and in Trinity Term on 'Nomadism in Anatolia'. Throughout the year he took part in all of the practical classes, tutored twelve students for the Preliminary Examination in the Honour School of Geography, and was an examiner in the Preliminary in Geography in June I952. He reviewed H. J. Wood's Exploration and Discovery in Geography, xxxvii, part 3, p. I82, and Delougaz's Ancient Pottery from the Diyala Region for Man, and it is now in press. In addition to other activities mentioned elsewhere in this Report, he assisted at the Easter Conference of the Ministry of Education on the Eastern Mediterranean. He will represent the Museum at the Belfast meeting of the British Association.
Mr. I.M. Allen has been promoted from his apprenticeship to be a Technician. He has received his National Certificate in Chemistry, a joint award of the Ministry of Education and of the Royal Institute of Chemistry, and is now working for the Higher Certificate. He is continuing at the City Technical School one day a week, as his rapidly improving ability in chemistry and in drawing is of the greatest use to the Museum.
Mr. Roy Burden saw a good chance of one day having a farm of his own, and while we were very sorry to lose him, we had to let him go to be a farmer. His place is taken by Mr. Anthony Wootton, our youngest apprentice, and he is shaping well, especially with drawing and plaster-casting and modelling. He too spends one day a week at the City Technical School.
The Museum had many visitors, including the Bath Academy of Art, which has sent parties of students regularly, and about 2,000 children with their teachers.
Apart from a considerable number of research workers and students from Oxford and many other parts of the world who have required attention from the staff, 9,700 members of the general public have visited the Museum.


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