Report of the Pitt Rivers Museum 1932

The difficulties arising from lack of adequate exhibition space in the Museum have increased and satisfactory administration is almost impossible, in view of the fact that no extension of the area allotted to the display of specimens for the benefit of the public has been made since the Museum was started, nearly fifty years ago. Drawer-cabinets, glass-fronted cupboards, and a few table-cases have been added, in order to eke out the space, but this leads to increased congestion by the reduction in width of the gangways, thus seriously hampering the free circulation of visitors and students, and militating against the giving of lectures and demonstrations in the museum.

Most of the table-cases at the east end of the upper gallery were rearranged, and this work will be continued in connexion with the general Prehistoric series. Some new drawer-cabinets were added under the table-cases, for storing research material. In the lower gallery some rearrangements of exhibited and stored material have been carried out. In the Court the addition of cabinets of glass-topped drawers and table-cases has enabled some redistribution of specimens to be made. Throughout the Museum there has been much necessary relabelling of specimens.

The mounting and classified grouping of the large series of ethnological photographs was nearly completed, and cases for containing this collection were purchased. My assistant, Mr. E.S. Thomas, was engaged upon this work during the greater part of the year, and in bringing card-catalogues up to date. In order to associate together all the classified photographs, a cabinet of portfolios was transferred to the Book-room in the iron building.

I have nearly completed a paper upon the Stone Implements of Tasmania, and have prepared for publication a paper upon “The tandu industry of Nigeria and its affinities elsewhere”. Other articles and papers are in course of preparation.

I have given the usual courses of lectures to students for the Diploma in Anthropology throughout the year, and during Hilary Term I gave a course of eight lectures to the Tropical African Services Students, on behalf of the Colonial Office. Many persons engaged in research have made use of the material afforded by the collections in the Museum. Organized visits paid by parties of school children and by members of educational institutions have increased in frequency, the numbers varying from a few to as many as seventy (Worcester Grammar School). Two parties of teachers and inspectors attached to the Board of Education each paid seven visits to the Museum during their stay in Oxford.

Sir Francis Knowles very kindly volunteered to make a card-index catalogue of a collection of more than a thousand specimens illustrating primitive methods of illumination, which I have presented to the Museum. This work occupied him during many months.

The accessions list is a long one. Some of the more important acquisitions are the following. A number of objects used in native cults of the Tiv (Munshi) tribe of Northern Nigeria were given by the Wukari and Abinsi Native Administrations, and form a valuable accession from an important tribe hitherto but poorly represented in the series. A considerable collection from New Guinea (chiefly from the Fly R. natives) obtained by the late S. D. Burrows, was presented by his mother, and includes types new to the Museum. Major Powell-Cotton’s donation of specimens collected by himself in French Camérun, W. Africa, is of considerable interest and particularly well documented. A very interesting series of stone implements from Miss Garrod’s excavations near Mt. Carmel, Palestine, was given by the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. An artificially shrunken head in fine preservation from the Jivaro tribe of Ecuador, and a series of ninety-one Japanese netsuki, bequeathed by the late Leonard Loat, are also noteworthy. An extensive transfer of specimens from the Indian Institute in Oxford has enriched several of the Museum series with important accessions.

Of the purchased accessions the most important are a cross-bow with bow of composite construction, and an Australian shield exhibiting a very unusual style of carving.

Decorated bronze side-blast trumpet with pellet-bells. Maria Gonds, Nagpur, C.P. India. Presented by W.H. Shoobert. Round gold disk ornament, 4 penannular gold ear or nose-ornaments, Queblada Camarones, Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Presented by Major R.H. Thomas. Turned wooden bailer for curraghs, Aran Islands, Ireland. Presented by Miss B. Blackwood. Zemi, 3-pointed carved stone with human head and face, Ancient Tainan (Arawak) Culture, and upper part of an almond-shaped flint celt partially ground, excavated in Porto Rico, W. Indies. Presented by Lord Olivier. Straw egg-cup, Fair Isle, Shetland Islands. Presented by the Principal, St. Edmund Hall, Oxford. Kapas, small crate of palm-leaf mid-rib, Egypt. Presented by G.D. Hornblower, O.B.E., B.A., F.S.A. Vase-shaped pottery (Greek-Fire bomb), Forum of Constantine. Presented by S. Casson, M.A. Bod da, waist-belt with pandanus leaf fringe, tawgo chawngada, boys' armlets of pandanus leaf, Andaman Islands; 2 large cheroots enclosed in leaf, pair of wooden sandals with toe-pegs, Burma; nest of painted wooden boxes, India; grotesque mask (spirit-scare) moulded on a tortoise carapace, Chinese; pair of embroidered leather slippers, ?Arab; pair of quill-worked deer-skin moccasins, ?Canada. Presented by Miss J.M. Oliver. Cast of carved head of a ? deer (Madelainean), Laugerie Basse, Dordogne. Presented by D. Harden, M.A. Bowl of clay pipe (early l9th cent.) found under roots of a sequoia in front of the University Museum, Dec. 1932. Presented by the Curators of the University Parks, Oxford. Nineteen ground stone celts, Gold Coast and Ashanti; obsolete pottery pipe-bowl, 2 small brass boxes for gold-dust, 14 cast-brass weights for weighing gold-dust, Kumasi; 32 ditto, Abomposu; 2 small granite grinding-stones, Obuasi; Ashanti: 4 natural stoncs (? for making celts) found near a grooved stone out-crop, 3 larg,e quartz balls found 3-4 feet deep in diamond gravels, 68 round stone-drilled syenite disk-beads found in a pot 12 feet deep in diamond gravels, sphere of quartz made by battering, shaped sandstone block with central perforation, Akwatiai; heavy granite slab with 18 depressions on one side, very small ground stone celt, Bibiani; 2 small phyllite slabs with similar cup-like depressions, small grindstone for stone celts with grooves and depressions; Moshi bow, small quiver and arrows, Tarkwa; rough quartz ball made by battering, Kokotentin; carved and painted wooden chameleon for the top of an umbrella (tribal totem), Apremebu; Gold Coast: 2 wooden figures of Aowin women made in Adansi; 2 notched ceremonial flutes, kete, with spiders' egg-case vibrating membrane (one unfinished) made by a chief of Akrokerri; Kuduo lidded brass vessel for offerings, Kumasi, Ashanti; leather-covered Hausa; flask made of skin moulded on clay, Gold Coast; Kissi penni (T-shaped iron currency-rod), Sierra Leone; spindle.whorl, barrelled incised cylinder, and decorated lug from a vessel (all of pottery) from 7,000 feet above sea level, Tolima, Colombia, S. America. Presented by Capt. R.P. Wild. Twelve flints to illustrate technique, made by F. Snare Brandon, Suffolk, comprising cores, cones of percussion, and implements including a minute arrow-head and 3 profile portraits; silhouette in flint of a cock (pressure-flaked) made by donor; ball and spike hung with chains used by Dervishes for self-torture, Egypt; 3 special constables' batons, England; long-toothed composite comb, ?Melanesia; fish-hook of wood, bone, and haliotis shell, dissected to show structure, Maori; pair of decorated leather sandals, Nigeria; 2 yempu shangqu puzzles of interlocking leaf, Chang, Naga Hills; pair of rough, wooden horn-mounted spectacles in a wooden case, Scotland; puzzle of wood and deer-skin thong, Arizona, U.S.A. Presented by Henry Balfour, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. Three ground stone adzes, and a small ?natural soft stone of adze form, dug up on Great Barrier Island, North Island, distal half of a basalt mere, piece of kauri gum, ibid.; New Zealand. Presented by Miss Rogers. Objects collected in S. Africa (circ. 1870), viz.- Gourd snuff-flask covered with beads, small plain rhinoceros horn ditto, wooden spoon with double handle, ditto with carved handle, antelope horn. Presented by J.F. Green. Three English horse-brasses, engraved ?German powder-flask of flattened cow-horn dug up near Cheltenham, ratchet-wheel corn-crake " call ", spring-lidded double cartouche case for measuring charges of powder and shot, bark-stripping implement, Longhope; Gloucestershire: brass head-terret for a cart-horse, English; elliptical brass ornament for a cart-horse's head, Pin Barton, Devon; eel-leister with hooks, Heybridge, Essex; rough wooden spindle for 3-ply woollen yarn, South Uist, Outer Hebrides. Presented by Dr. O.H. Wild. Specimens collected by donor in Sarawak, Borneo, viz.:— Tapering open-work thorn-lined fish-trap, Basaya; decorated lidded basket, Seduan tribe; bamboo tobacco-box, Malay, Kuching district; 2 small engraved stoppered bamboo tubes for gambir (chewed with betel-nut), Land Dyak; 2 very small delicately carved canoe-paddles used by women only, Dalat, Oya River. Presented by Capt. H. Jacques. Model of obsolete wooden plough, Palestine; model of Virgil's plough. Presented by the Institute for Research in Agricultural Engineering, Oxford. A collection of objects connected with the ritual of the Mba tsav secret society, of the Tiv (Munshi) tribe, Wukari division, Benue Province, N. Nigeria (confiscated by the Administration), viz.:— Skull of a notable whose body had undergone Tar burial (a kind of mummification by fire), preserved to bring prosperity, similar skull with fringe of tin pendants, 4 carved wooden Atsuku figures of both sexes, well modelled pottery head perhaps representing a Tar burial skull, ivungu, gourd sounding-instrument with feathers of an owl to imitate the owl's cry, ditto decorated with hare's fur to imitate the hare's cry, bowl-shaped instrument of wild-cat skin to imitate wild-cat's cry at night, 2 imborivungu (engraved leg-bones each with a modelled human head on the top and vibrating membrane over the lower end to simulate the voice of ancestral spirits), smaller ditto with abrus seed decoration, ditto of brass in form of a human figure. ditto of bone with carved wooden head and bead decoration without membrane, ditto of bone with rubber-coated monkey skull and abrus and bead ornament without membrane, 4 ditto of brass in human form decorated (2) with pellet bells, and (1) trade beads, without membrane, "night-horse" figure of rubber and coloured cloth to cause invisibility, and to travel upon to kill victims, bridle for the above, bagu baboon-skull to cause baboons to damage an enemy's crops, gajil, "night-bow", with quill arrows to cause an enemy's death, dried eagle's head (?for assuming eagle form), quiver containing poison and quills (one is shaken out towards a foe to cause his death), ifi, pot filled with water to cause death by drowning, mfe, grindstone, rubbed with a human victim's blood and white excrement of a python to make spears infallible, a bundle of short rods, ako, representing lives to be taken by order of the Jukun King, 2 tsuwe chains with hooks to drag bodies (to be eaten) from graves for prior symbolical resuscitation by the ikehegh horn, ikehegh (antelope) horn, chain with nut-shells attached for divination, shell on copper ring with charm-pouch of civet's fur to guard virginity, 2 leather charm-pouches on a chain, loin-cloth sewn with charms to give power to the wearer, afia cap worn by a Tiv drum-chief, sleeved patch-work gown of a drum-chief, six-tailed leather whip wound with brass and iron (insignia of a drum-chief). Also objects made and used by the Tiv, viz.:—iba'a hood-mask used to ensure delivery by pregnant women and during Tar burial rites, small gourd cup decorated with "poker-work", 2 brass male human figures cast by cira-perdue process, modern ditto of a woman carrying a child, ditto of a bird on an iron tripod. Presented by the Wukari National Administration. Pitch-pipe in box form with slide to vary notes, Great Milton, Oxon, elaborate structure of wood, bone, and silk in a bottle, English. Presented by W.J. Hemp. Round thick lava bowl found (1913-14) in the crater of Ngorongoro, Tanganyika Territory, with a man's skeleton and 50 women's skulls without lower jaws. Presented by J.C. Trevor Small pottery bowl with groove ornament and loop handles from a burial-mound in S.E. Missouri, U.S.A. Presented by Prof: J.L. Myres, MA., OB.E., F.B.A. Part of external cast of an ammonite in Upper Lias claystone, Whitby, Yorkshire. Presented by C.J. Bayzand, M.A. One of some 120 wooden posts with cross-bars at the top found standing in a pond, Adderbury, near Banbury, Oxon. Presented by the Misses Bradford. Gourd bottle with carved designs, ?Hausa, N. Nigeria; ball- headed club with wire-bound haft, ?Mashonaland; hide-strip twist with the hair in a spiral, Africa; 4 scrapers, scraper made of a trimmed pebble-flake with crust all round, core, core- scraper, 30 unworked and slightly worked flint flakes, Broomsthorpe Hall, East Rodham, Norfolk; rough scraper made of an outside flake, Mill Brick-pit, Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex; 9 rough scrapers and 4 flakes, Mill and North Lane Brick-pits, ibid.; roughly flaked flint nodule with cortex at one end,Yapton, Sussex. Presented by Sir F. Knowles, Bart., M.A. Large outside flint flake with grattoir a museau on a margin, Yapton. Presented by F. Knowles, Junr. Unfinished cloak of phormium tenax fibre, unfinished mat of coarse wool, ditto of fine wool with kiwi feather ornament, Arawa tribe, Rotorua, New Zealand. Presented by W.F. Dennan. Wooden transverse flute with silver keys, made in New York; small silver fruit-knife (early 19th cent.), English. Presented by Mrs. C.E. Barrett-Lennard. Pair of round wooden ear-plugs with coloured celluloid inlay, Zulu. Presented by Prof. P.R. Kirby. Specimens collected by donor in the Eastern Sudan, viz.— Two wooden head-rests, pair of gourds on a cord to carry small objects, Nuer; parrying-shield of ambatch wood used as pillow and seat, Rueng Dinka; 2 fly-whisks of giraffe and bone, large milk-churn of string-work and leather, plaited leathcr reins for a riding-bull, Baggara; 2 double clarinet pipcs (argoul type), end-flute (nny type) of reed bound with brass wire: all Kordofan. Two pairs of daggers each with curved blade, sheath, and leather belt, Hadendoa, Red Sea Province; 2 carved figures (male and female), Azande. Presented by C. Armine Willis, C.B.E., M.A. Collection of 91 Japanese netsukis mostly of ivory, shrunken human head with stitched lips and long streamers of green beetle elytra, Jivaro Indians, Ecuador. Bequeathed by L. Loat.  Specimens from the Idoma tribe, south of the Benue River, N. Nigeria, viz.:— Two carved and painted wooden figures of seated wornen, 5 ditto wooden masks with tribal marks, elliptical wooden stool brandished in dances, ochodo of wood with bast fringes and iron jingles pounded on the ground to mark rhythm for dances, 5 tobacco-pipes with cast brass bowls (cire-perdue process), 4 Y-shaped iron currency units. Presented by Capt. Beaver Three small spear-heads of bottle glass, natives of Derby district, N.W. Australia. Presented by the Rev. F. Sanderson. Objects confiscated from the Tiv (Munshi) of Abinsi district, Benue Province, N. Nigeria, viz.:— Eight imborivnngu (see above, Wukari Administration) voice disguisers of bone with modelled human head and abrus seed, bead &c. decoration, 7 ditto of brass in grotesque human form with lateral voice-holes, some with bells and abrus seed &c. ornament, 3 similar human figures of cast brass with lateral voice-holes, without aperture for membrane, similar figure badly cast, small solid cast-brass phallic male figure (? cult object), 3 skulls of ancestors decorated with cloth &c (one with bells) to preserve the good-will of the souls of deceased (see above), 2 ditto with cowrie &c. Ornament pendant fringes on bone imborivungi without membranes, 2 cast brass conical lamps used in night-rituals, bowl-shaped cast brass beer-dipper, 2 iron-bladed two-edged daggers said to be used in human sacrifice, chain of strung vertebrae and nut shells for divination, tusk of wart-hog on an iron ring (armlet to protect wearer against witches), leather-mounted hom of bush buck (ditto), necklet of blue and white beads, pottery head with tribal marks, head and neck on a round base with tribal marks, cloth-covered hair-fringed gourd rattle representing a human face with cowrie eyes and quill nose (used in rituals), carved wooden figure of a squatting man. Presented by the Abinsi .Native Administration. Two tobacco-pipes with large elaborate black pottery bowls Tiv, Abinsi, N. Nigeria. Presented by Capt. R.C. Abraham. Flat oval perforated stone disk used as a fetish (probably a digging-stick weight). L. Tanganyika. Presented by W.R. Moore. Five rough ovate stone implements flaked on one surface (lower palaeolithic facies). Medan district, N.E. Coast of Sumatra. Presented by V.J. Allard. Man's costume comprising embroidered wide-sleeved coat, plain cotton inner-coat, embroidered short baggy trousers, cotton inner pants with leather belt. ?Hausa, Nigeria. Presented by P.A. Talbot, D.Sc. Spinning wheel, rough horn spoon, iron crusie-lamp with double pan, Shetland Islands; small model of a spinning wheel Norway; miner's small oil-lamp with hook to fix on hat, Cornwall; round tinder-box with accessories (early I 9th cent.), old scissor snuffers, English; 3 clip candlesticks for rush lights, Ireland; hanging oil-lamp with suspended oil-catcher, Savoy; standing ditto with spouted oil-holder, Flemish; tobacco-pipe with painted bowl and long stem, Germany; resin-coated globular pottery vessel, Fiji Islands; small ivory steelyard in fiddle-shaped case, cast bronze figure of a sage riding a stag, small ivory revolving trapeze with acrobats, China; prayer-wheel of horn and bone, cast brass ceremonial dagger, Tibet; spherical open-work case with oil-lamp on gimbals inside with a tripod stand (a hand warmer), ? India; skull of a European man; small rubber model of an iguana, ? S. America. Bequeathed by Miss Janet Kirkaldy, M.A. Objects collected by Commr. P. Robarts, R.N., viz.:—Three wooden crutch-handled padd]es (one with bird carving), portions of a chief's canoe with pearl-shell decoration, Solomon Islands; 2 boomerangs, Australia; barbed spear cut from heavy wood, Samoan type; Roman pottery lamp; ditto (forgery), Palermo. Presented by the late Miss F.F. Robarts. Seven small rough stone implements, Quibray Bay; 15 ditto, N. Cronula; both Botany Bay: 9 ditto, Point Kembla; drill of pointe de la Gravette type; 7 small implements of Tardenoisean facies; 3 small flake implements with one worked bevelled edge; hammer-stone roughened for finger-grip, Bellambi; all New South Wales: 4 ground slate lance-heads, Coast Salish, Vancouver Island; 9 flaked stone lance- and arrow-heads, ibid.; 7 ditto, Interior Salish, Fraser R.; 4 stone celts (one very thin and perhaps a knife), Salish, Vancouver Island; all British Columbia: 2 pieces of worked obsidian, Major Island, N. Island, New Zealand. Presented by Capt. A . H. Coltart. Grattoir a museau on a thick flake. Laugerie Haute, Dordogne. Presented by H. V. Noone. Iron spike with wooden block fringed with short chains used by the Rafai sect to prize out the eyeball (afterwards replaced without injury) as an act of devotion; 2 iron skewers used by the Rafai to pass through the body or neck (without harm); 2 steel-bows (of composite facies) damascened and painted respectively; 13 steel-headed arrows; toddy-drawer's outfit comprising lopping- and tapping.knives, loops tor body and feet, wooden strops for knives, and leather belt for knives and toddy-pot, with photograph of toddy. drawer climbing, Raigir; 2 clay figures of horses made by Gonds (found in jungle), Manikgarh, Sipur Tandur: all Hyderabad, Deccan, India Presented by Dr. E.H. Hunt. Four designs on paper painted with uri, juice by a woman, of patterns painted on bodies of women and children. Calabar, S. Nigeria. Presented by Capt. G.S. Hughman. Primitive oboe made of spirally wound palm.leaf strip with " reed " of the same. Hula, British New Guinea. Presentcd by Dr. A.C. Haddon, D.Sc., F.R.S, Large rough clip candlestick cut from a branching stem for pine-splint lights (?circ. 200 years old). Forde, Sondmore,,Norway. Presented by T. Olaf Willson. Specimens excavated at Marychurch, Devon (? an old collection thrown away), viz.: Thirty-four pottery lamps of Roman and Palestinian types, small round flat pottery flask, small pottery head, ? Roman. Presented by Mrs. T.H. Lewis. Four wooden ladles with " poker-work " designs. Tiv, Abinsi, N. Nigeria. Presented by E.S. Pembleton. Pair of cuffs overlaid with ground cowries (circ. 1880), Naga Hills, Assam. Presented by Lady Buckingham. Specimens collected by the late S. D. Burrows, A.R.M., Papua, viz.: Arrow-proof cane-work cuirass, Alice R.; 2 daggers of cassowary leg-bone, cane loop and carved toggle for carrying "heads", 4 women's fringed skirts, widow's fringed cap of bark strip, 2 breast-ornaments of boar's tusks on bark and string-work, bast belt with cowrie ornament, I9 armlets of plaited fibre, bag of fine network, bamboo lime-tube with scraped ornament, operculum of Turbo (from distant mountains), obsidian boulder: all Fly River, B.N.G. Two long composite hair- combs with banana-seed ornament; necklet of pink shell disk-beads; ditto of Nassa shells; ditto of ?mollusc tests; ditto of fish vertebrae; ditto of gorgonia and trade beads, ditto of banana seeds; ebony lime-spatula with split clapper handle, 3 ditto with handles carved in human form, Massim district; all British New Guinea: 7 sticks of trade-tobacco also used for exchange in B.N.G.; 2 valves of Placuna shells, oval pendant of Meleagrina shell, washed ashore near Sarnarai, British New Guinea. The following from Australia, viz.:— Three wooden shields with coloured groove ornament and carved-out grips; 3 boomerangs (Kaili type), N.W. Australia; 5 very long reed spears with wooden fore-shafts and stone or glass blades, 23 stone and glass spear-blades, 4 long spear-throwers, N.Central Australia; iron-bladed axe hafted native fashion in a bent stick, N. Australia; fruit-shell with engraved figures, cylindrical wicker basket, ? ibid.; lump of spinifex gum, 2 stock-whips, Australia. The following from China and Japan, viz.:— Three armlets of strung carved nut-shells, necklet of spherical carved ditto, puzzle of bone bars on silk threads, nut-shell bead with carved figure of a sage, China; 4 small books of native fairy-tales, Japan; glazed box of paintings on rice-paper,? Japan. Also, large globular polychrome glass Saxon bead (5th cent.) found 3 feet below surface at Wood Farm, Sandilands, Sandwich, Kent; flanged steel dart used in war for dropping from aeroplanes, found in Hamel Wood, 1918. Presented by Mrs. Burrows, through Mrs. Gordon Canning. Two slings used in inter-village riots, clay tube guguchu with membrane to vibrate when hummed or spoken into for disguising the voice, Oraon; sword-grass leaves with spider-egg 3 cases used for the membrane of the guguchu: all Chota Nagpur. Presented by Rai Bahadur Sarat Chatzdra Roy.  Gold finger-ring with symbols in relief, Gold Coast; 3 coloured glass armlets made by natives from melted European bottles, Bida, Nupe, N. Nigelia. Presented by Capt. F.W. Taylor. Wooden ovoid box and a bowl with "stopped-out" designs, Tatra district, N. Hungary; whisk of split bamboo, China. Presented by H. Peach. Specimens collected by donor during his travels in Africa, viz:- Large shield of cane-strip and hide, Tunia tribe; 3 tanged iron-headed poisoned arrows, Kanembu tribe; 2 long-bowled black pottery pipes, Sara tribe; roll of native cloth (gabbak) :3 used as currency, 2 "Maria Theresa dollars" minted in Paris for native currency, man's decorated white cotton cap, all Lake Chad region. Large sub-cylindrical wicker meat-basket, Ubangi region; rattle made of a large bean with pebbles inside, Balali and Bateke, Central Equatorial Africa. Also piece of stuff woven of banana-leaf strip with cotton weft, Liu Kiu Islands. Presented by R. Hottot. Specimens collected by donor in the French Cameroos (1931—32), viz.:—  Cross-bow with peg release, Bakoko tribe; boy's bow of raphia palm mid-rib and 26 arrows with double (one triple) points, 2 women's carrying-baskets, native-made enema (a reed-tube with rubber bag), pair of jointed marionettes jerked on a string with the toes, Kaka tribe; hide quiver with I 2 iron-headcd arrows without feathering, Garoua tribe; narrow iron leaf-shaped spear-head (socketed and engraved), 2 round coiled-basketry bowls of coloured grass, small globular antimony-flask of moulded membrane covered with dyed leather, small triangular iron razor for shaving women's heads, pair of penannular brass armlets, Tcheboua tribe; hoe with crutch handle and much-worn socketed iron blade, man's penis-sheath of gourd, notched end-flute of wood with single stop, Namchis tribe; flexible fish-trap of open network made of creeper stem with long cord to close it when pulled, Bakoko tribe; round shallow food-bowl cover of coiled basketry in colours, Rei Bouba tribe; 4 pieces of resin carried under the tongue by women to promote fertility, 2 iron blades and 2 pieces of spear-headed iron used as money, Maka tribes. Presented by Major P.H.G. Powell-Cotton. Specimens transferred from the Indian Institute, Oxford, viz: Specimens colleccted in the Andaman Islands by E. H. Man:— 2 bows, I I long reed fish-arrows with wooden points, similar arrow with trigon spine point, 6 ditto with single-barbed iron points, 6 pig-arrows with leaf-shaped blades with a barb, on detachable fore-shafts, one ditto with 2 barbs, 2 long arrows with wooden fore-shafts and triangular single-barbed blades, 2 ditto with detachable fore-shafts with line, for pig-hunting, 3 arrows cut from palm-wood with lanceolate blades (used as ornaments), red-painted digging-stick for roots, adze with cane-bound iron blade, knife with thin lanceolate blade for cutting up food, similar ditto with iron skewer on a cord, hand-net with cane frame used by women to fish in streams &c., 4 netting-needles with fibre-string, pair of forked spools wound with cords partly twisted together, strips of bark used for rope and cord, string of fibre for bowstrings &c., fibre used by women for fish-nets and sleeping mats, lenticular wooden food-tray, small wicker basket, model of canoe-paddle with wax designs, paint made of fat and iron oxide for painting thc body, ointment, and for painting face of a corpse, 2 necklets of red coral, waist-girdle of yellow orchis-root cords with dentalium shell fringes, necklet of digital bones of dead relatives on string-work coated with red ochre worn as memorials and for curing the sick, ditto of pieces of bone with dentalium fringe, similar necklet of bones on a thick cord without fringe, man's skull coated with red ochre with detalium fringe worn on the neck as a memorial, large shield-shaped sounding-board drummed with the heel to set time in dances. Objects from Assam and Manipur:—Spear with bamboo shaft and socketed blade, long narrow sword of iron, sub-rectangular curved wooden shield with carved face, Garo, Garo Hills; iron sword with long blade and long slender handle dao with wide square-ended blade and wooden handle, sickle with serrated edge and wooden handle with pommel, Khasi, Khasia Hills; quiver of 2 tapering pieces of wood bound with cane, Mikir, Assam; dao with concavo-convex edge and wooden handle decorated with yellow orchis stem and red hair-tufts, Kacbari type, Assam; dao with slightly hooked iron blade, Mikir Nopa, Nowgong, Assam; dao with square end and cane-bound haft, small cross-handled bamboo weeding-hoe, sickle with serrated edge and wooden handle, large wooden drinking mug, Angami; axe with tapering blade tanged through a wooden haft, Naga, Wokha; similar axe, Sema; Naga Hills; square-ended dao with concave sides, with cane bound handle, weeding-hoe with straight tapering iron blade and wooden haft: all Assam. Large rectangular fishing net with curious square mesh, Manipuri; head-plume of the tail feathers of Dissemurus and feathers of Rollers (?) on a wooden peg, Kuki; neck-band of dyed grass and yellow orchis-root decorated with cowries and red and black hair tassels, warrior's head-dress with large " horns " and hair fringes and coloured seed ornamentation, Tangkhul: Manipur. Indians Weapons:—Long wooden bow with cane string, 9 arrows wilh barbed iron heads, 3 arrows with lozenge-shaped blades, arrow with blunt head of horn, 5 iron-headed arrows (3 barbed), Central Provinces; strongly reflexed painted composite bow, N. India; rough spear and club combined, C. India; bamboo bullet-bow for clay pellets, whip with elaborate silver handle with filigree overlay on the lash, India; 2 painted reflexed composite bows, Afghanistan; 3 steel chakram war-quoits, spear with short steel shaft containing a dagger, barbed spear with shaft of black-buck's horn, glaive with steel blade and shaft with brass elephant's head at their junction, battle-axe with 2 lateral blades and a thrusting point, " crow-bill " war-pick with damascened haft, ditto ditto with brass elephant at back of blade and dagger in the haft, similar weapon with brass tigers at base of blade, battle-axe with wide-winged triangular blade, all-steel mace with double row of flanges at the head, ditto with single group of flanges and grip-guard, damascened mace with hollow horned demon's head as mace-head, long two-edged damascened sword with gauntlet hilt, steel parrying-stick with terminal knobs and dagger-blade on central grip-guard, two-edged dagger with curved blade and damascened steel grip, 2 vairagi's hollow steel crutches each with a concealed dagger inside, and with a brass hand holding a pick, and a tiger's head, at the top and butt respectively, ditto of steel with sigmoid arm-rest and concealed dagger, Jaipur, Rajputana; broad and pointed chopping-knife with concave edge and tapering brass-mounted wooden handle, ? Nepal; ditto with similar blade with steel-mounted brass-covered handle, ? Coorg, W. Ghats. Indian agricultural implements:—Cordiform iron hoe with rattan haft, model of a rice-plough, model of a plough with 3 yokes, ditto with one yoke, double plough with single yoke, model of a triple seed-drilling plough, ditto (quadruple) with 3 yokes, No Locality; sickle with rattan handle, small grass. cutting sickle, model of a rice-plough, 2 models of seed-drilling ploughs, Central Provinces; curved iron weeding-hoe with narrow blade and ringed tang, small hoe riveted to a ringed tang, 2 models of ploughs with single yokes, ?ibid.; narrow curved weeding-boe, rice-sickle with serrated edge, ditto finely serrated and with turned wooden handle, Madras; small weeding-trowel with recurved tang, sickle (not serrated), grass-sickle with serrated edge, Santal tribe, Bengal; wide-edged iron weeding-hoe, sickle with long tang bent at right angles, small trowel with oval blade, Cawnpore; small model of a plough for 8 pairs of oxen, similar ditto for 5 pairs, iron implement for scraping mud from a hoe, Bombay Presidency; very small grass-sickle with curved blade, Central Provinces; model of a plough with one yoke and ox-harness of cord, Nagpur; pair of head-stalls of cotton-cord for ploughing-oxen, India. India. Fishing and hunting:—Fishing-line with single bamboo gorge, ditto with hook-gorge of wire, Bengal; round with pottery weights, small all-steel hunting-knife in wooden sheath with cowrie-belt, Central Provinces; 2 small steel hunting-knives with boar's-tusk hilts (one brass-mounted), Travancore. Domestic food appliances:—Wooden rice-husking mill, wooden oil-press with rotating pestle, Cawnpore; coconut-scraper with iron serrated blade fixed to a wooden seat for operator, Bombay; ditto, raised on two feet, Bengal; combined ditto and vegetable-cutter with a hinged knife, and forked clamp to hold it, similar utensil all of iron on feet, food-ladle of coconut-shell with bamboo handle, Madras; rice-dish made of a section of large bamboo, Anamalai Hills, Madras Presidency; 2 jars of membrane moulded on a clay core with cut-paper decoration, small ditto for scent, Beawar, Rajputana; oil-ladle of coconut-shell with wooden handle, Burma. Domestic appliances:—Pottery saucer-lamp, tall wooden stand for pottery lamps with notched pillar and 2 lamp-holders, brass tweezers, lancet, and pricker on a chain, lidded iron spoon for lamp-black and oil eye-paint, similar ditto of brass, Bengal; 2 wooden brackets for pottery lamps, brass 2-pronged comb, Madras; steel writing-stile, small knife and fork and pricker in a sheath, Travancore; heavy wooden bat used by washermen, perforated brass roller filled with powder to mark patterns for engraving, Bombay; steel betel-slicer with open-work ornament of glazed Arabic characters on the handle, N. W. Provinces; clasp-knife and razor with scrolled wooden handle, ? ibid.; granite rasp for eiephants, small brass tweezers, 2 ear-cleaners of brass and bone, dwarf coconut scent-bottle with screw stopper, similar vessel to hold a pill, India; tall lamp-stand lacquered in red, green, and yellow, No Locality. Games:—Rough wooden spinning-top; imperfect pack of round cards (8 suits of I2 when complete) in rectangular box, pack of ordinary cards made in France, 2 cruciform cloth "boards" for pachesi, bag containing (incomplete) sets of pachesi pieces, rough canvas " game-board " with 64 squares, India; leather case containing 4 sets bf 4 agate, carnelian, &c. pieces and oblong dice of ivory and agate for the game Akeha Krira, N. India; pack of round cards (8 suits of I2) with bird symbols, in an oblong box, ditto (10 suits of 12) representing the Avatars of Vishnu, N.W. Provinces. Craftsmen's tools:—Bricklayer's outfit comprising large and small trowels, moulding trowel, and burnisher of iron, 2 wooden plaster-smoothers, 2 adzes with iron blades, wooden measuring-rod, levelling-rod, and set-square with stone plumb-bob; wood-turner's outfit:—a wooden lathe, bow to rotate the worked piece, iron bar (tool-rest), chisel in wooden handle, small English chisel in native handle, gouge, adze, and saw with reversed teeth, N. India; carpenter's tools:—frame-saw, draw-plane (blade missing), English chisel in native handle, native-made mortise-chisel, 2 drills with revolving sockets for bow drilling, native iron square marked in inches, marking-gauge, 2 pairs of iron compasses; goldsmith's outfit:—2 small anvils set in wood, hammer, U-shaped spring tongs, long hinged tongs, hinged pincers, large scissors, steel chisel, punch, brass blow-pipe, saucer-shaped brass mould, N. India; metal-worker's outfit:—small T-shaped anvil, 2 bars on which vessels are hung while hammered, sledge-hammer, g other hammers, small crowbar, 2 cold-chisels, 4 punches, 7 pairs of tongs (2 spring, 5 hinged), goat-skin bellows with rod-stiffened valves, iron square marked in inches, pair of iron compasses (? dividers), N. India.  Also objects collected by Robert Shaw in High Tartary, Yarkand, and Kashgar (1868-69) viz.: Iron calthrop with 4 barbed spikes for laming horses, ? Chinese Turkestan; wooden powder-flask with spring-valve, carpenter's line for marking lines on wood &c, mounted in a cow's horn on a stand, full of rags soaked in lamp-black with reel to wind up the string, Yarkand; bundle of native matches (lighters) made of a block split into plates bound together and dipped in sulphur, Kashgar; leather tinder-pouch with engraved steel set in the bottom, similar ditto of green shagreen-like leather, ?ibid.; silver-mounted sheath containing a knife, nail-file, ear-picks, and chop-sticks, ? Yarkand; carpenter's saw with reversed teeth, plane, and draw-share, 2 cordiform cloth ear-caps for cold weather, 3 pairs of anti-glare goggles of coarse cloth and hair-gauze for sun and snow, folding wooden writing-tablets to hold a fine dust to write in, semicircular wooden comb fitting in a round sheath with stamped designs, archer's thumb-ring of green jade, roll of native tobacco, tobacco-pipe of brass engraved, opium pipe of red pottery with brass socket and bamboo stem (Chinese type), bowl of a ditto, 3 jade mouth-pieces for opium pipes, 5 ditto for tobacco pipes, oviform jade ? pebble with deep hole bored in one end, 4 jews'-harps with iron frames and steel tongues bent for plucking. Five models illustrating stringing of stools and beds in the Eastern Sudan. Presented by Mrs. Crowfoot. Two Kete flutes of reed with notched mouth-piece at one end, 4 and 5 finger-stops and a grass tassel at the other; used ceremonially, Meduma, S. Ashanti. Presented by Capt. R.E. Walker. Specimens found during excavations (1928-29) in the neolithic and chalcolithic strata at Kish, viz. Eighteen flint-flakes with serrated edges used for cutting-teeth in sickles (with characteristic polish produced by use), 37 flint awls or gravers, 6 burins with worked points, 3 long scrapers of duck-bill type, double concave ? scraper, small disk with flaked vertical margins, rough discoidal implement flaked on both surfaces, 2 flakes with serrated edges, 2 ditto with onetrimmed margin, small square flake with distal margin trimmed, 6 cores from which long narrow flakes had been struck, assortment of flakes. Presented by the Oxford Expedition to Kish. Specimens from excavations at Mugharet-el-Kebarah, Mt. Carmel, Palestine, viz.:— Mesolithic ("Natufian") culture:— 16 microlithic crescents trimmed along the back from one surface, 26 ditto trimmed from both surfaces, 5 ditto of both types, 9 narrow flakes trimmed along the back, 30 broader ditto with squared or rounded ends, 5 flake-blades with trimmed backs and diagonal ends, 15 serrated sickle flints with polish from use, 23 ditto ditto with untrimmed edges, 11 slightly curved flakes worked to a point along one edge, 4 narrow flakes trimmed both sides, end-scrapers, large heavy, ?chopping flake, thick narrow flake with one margin trimmed, burin, fusiform implement worked all over, 6 small cores, piece of a grooved polishing-stone, natural morpholith, 34 bone awls, 3 barbed bone points, 5 pieces of bone implements, 30 pear-shaped perforated bone pendants, large and small dentalium shells (? for chaplets). Mesolithic (uncorrelated) culture:—10 thin points of gravette type, 28 ditto with diagonal trimmed points, 2 flake-blades with a trimmed edge, 2 end-scrapers, 4 cores. Middle Aurignacian I:—2 flakes with a trimmed point, 3 flakes with a trimmed margin, 3 flakes trimmed on both margins, 1 burin, 16 end-scrapers, 2 double-ended ditto, scraper with jagged edge, 2 ?racloirs, 7 cores. Middle Aurignacian 2:—2 narrow flakes with a worked edge, 3 coarser ditto, I small flake of Chatelperron type, 3 points trimmed both sides, 2 flakes trimmed both sidcs, racloir-like blades, 4 ?double-racloirs, 7 end-scrapers, 6 scrapers of grattoir-a-museau type, I small pointed end-scraper, 1 end-and-side scraper, 4 core-scrapers, 6 rough cores. Lower Middle Aurignacian:—6 flakes with worked points, 8 end-scrapers, 4 flakes with a trimmed margin, 3 core-scrapers, 6 cores. Presented by the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. Composite bow of wood, horn, and sinews of Persian type, Hunza, Gilgit, Kashmir. Presented by Major D. H. Gordon. "God-spear" with large central blade and ring of 8 small blades, the haft ornamented with a spiral band (fired or stained). Presented by L.C.G. Clarke, M.A. Collection of objects used by the Nagas, Naga Hills, Assam, viz.:— Cloth of the son of a man who has done mithan (buffalo) sacrifice of red with light blue stripes, body-cloth of the wife of a ditto of black with plaid-like red bands and red wool ornament, cloth of a ditto of red and black stripes with streamers of red-dyed dog's hair and fringed with red and black goat's hair tassels with cowrie " necks ", woman's red skirt with double black lines, ditto with blue lines edged on one side with pellet bells, Ao; woman's blue cloth with orange, red, and black lines and red and yellow cross-lines, girl's black skirt with red selvages and blue lines worked with red wool and with fringes with yellow orchis root and green beetle elytra ornament, black skirt of a chief's daughter worked in red and yellow thread and with cowrie trefoils &c. sewn on the surface, skirt of a girl whose parents have not sacrificed mithan of black with a wide grey selvage and patterned with red wool-work, ditto of red, the selvage red-striped and worked in red and yellow, Sema; black cloth worn by both sexes with red and white stripes, woman's blue body-cloth with red selvages, E. Angami; white cloth of a man who has "taken heads ", with blue and red bands, Naked Rengma; indigo ditto with white panel painted in black with symbolical designs of warriors, weapons &c., similar ditto with double panel and red selvages, Rengma; rich man's white cloth with pink and black stripes, Yachumi; girl's dance-skirt with red, blue, and white bands and short blue tassels, boy's red cloth with black-edged white bands, Lyengmai (Kacha); girl's dance-skirt similar to the above, woman's white skirt with black lines and black and pink selvages, man's white fringed marriage-cloth with orange bands and orange, white, and black stripes, girl's red dance-skirt with white blue-edged bands with indigo and red wool-work along the centre, Zemi (Kacha); warrior's white baldrick worked in red and black; wool with chevrons, human figures, &c., Kalyo-Kengyu. Carved wooden head, agi, with eyes of green beetle elytra, red wool ear-rings, and goat's hair on scalp (hung up to celebrate " head-taking' ), agha ("enemy's teeth") a chest-ornament of wood with red and yellow basket-work overlay edged with cowries and with red goat's hair fringes, Rengma; cane lousing-comb, basket-making spike of a deer's ulna, ditto of red wood, long notched stick to reckon days between gennas, smaller ditto used in a boy's breath-holding game-contest, Lyengmai (Kacha); spear-blade sheath of wood covered with blackened leather, lancet of a sharpened cane-slip, Zemi (Kacha); small bamboo cup (girl's love-token) with finely engraved blackened designs, carved figure of a man with a long fringe of black human hair from the waist (a hip-ornament), Konyak; 4 puzzles each made of 2 folded and segmented interlocking leaves, baby's "comforter" (a small 8-shaped gourd with cord), ditto made of a flask-shaped piece of wood, Thado Kuki. Also, from the N. Cachar Hills, lidded basket containing II magic books (copy-books and a register) filled with ink and pencil scribbling, long phallic stick with monkey's skull and ginger tied to it (a talisman against enemies and evil spirits), 3 conical blocks ('" war-clubs ") for taking war-omens with an egg held to the light (? scrying); the above belonged to the Kabui sorceress Gaidiliu; confiscated at Hangrum, a Zemi village. Presented by J.P. Mills, M.A.

Wooden paddle, Maori; long paddle-shaped club, miniature ditto, Fiji Islands; long paddle with painted face in relief, Buka, Solomon Islands; wooden staff of spear form with leaf-shaped blade, S. Africa; stone axe socketed into a bamboo handle, Mimika R., Dutch New Guinea; kukri with carved ivory grip, Nepal; Khyber knife with stone pommel, N. India; mall knife in brass-bound sheath, Maka llanga, Mashonaland; rough 2-edged sword, sime', Nandi, Kenya; dagger with 2 holes in blade and ivory hilt, No Locality; silver-handled dagger, Albania; circular ground stone axe hafted with handle bent round the blade, small heavy elliptical shield with elaborately engraved designs, spear-thrower similarly decorated, 2 knob-headed clubs with grooved shafts, Australia, (Stevens.) Roll of narrow native cotton-cloth (currency); javelin with multi-barbed head with throwing-loop (" amentum"), Filani, Potiskun division; 6 rolls of native cotton-cloth used in certain payments, 4 archers' rings of iron spiral (3) and leather, Burra tribe, Biu division: all Bornu, N. Nigeria. (per the Resident.) Gothic cross-bow with composite bow and stock overlaid with ?bone. ?Swedish. (Sotheby.) Two grooved bark-cloth mallets, Hervey Islands; large red wooden paddle, Mangaia, Cook Islands; 2pearl-shell fish-hooks Marshall Islands; miniature club with conical end, New Hebrides; dance jingle of canarium, nut-shells, Santa Cruz Islands; 3-edged palm-wood sword edged with sharks' teeth, 3-pronged ditto, Gilbert Islands; adze with ovate nephrite blade, New Caledonia; wooden 4-pronged "cannibal-fork", wooden headrest, Fiji Islands; bamboo spear-thrower with wooden flange, N.E. New Guinea; 3 ground stone axes with pecked butts, long broad wooden sword-club with small grip, Queensland; spear-thrower with hook of wallaby incisor, S. Australia; miniature hani, fish-hook of iron wire with haliotis lure, New Zealand; large shield-shaped wooden gong for setting dance-rhythm resin torch wrapped in palm-leaf, Andaman Islands; 8 blow-gun darts with iron blades, oiled linen " feathers" and conical butts of lacquered cloth, ?Malayali; small drum with bell-shaped brass body, Egypt; wooden head-rest, E. Sudan; rectangular shield of string-bound canes, ? Benin; lidded calabash bowl carved with human figures &c., Cape Coast Castle; wood end-whistle with 2 lateral and I terminal (basal) stop for sending messages in word-sounds, ? Ibo, Onitsha, S. Niger 2 bamboo boxes with finely incised line decoration, W. Africa bottle-gourd with fish-scale and other designs in line, ?ibid.; raw-hide whip with bead-covered handle, Maketese; war-axe with broad tanged sagittal blade, ?Basuto; axe with pointed narrow oval tanged blade, ? Matabili; axe with round tanged blade, twin head-rests with chain all carved from one block, S. Africa; two iron salmon-harpoon heads with short lines, Tlingit, British Columbia; calumet pipe of catlinite, N. America; raw-hide sling, W. Eskimo; wooden bow with 10 long arrows (6 with tanged stone points), Umacinta Valley, Guatemala; double-ended wooden whistle with tin bands, Lengua, Paraguay; long blow-gun made of 2 grooved lengths of palm-wood bound and covered with raw rubber with bone mouth-piece, Aguaruna tribe, Santiago R., Brazil; woman's apron of trade beads backed with cotton, British Guiana. (Hooper.) Carved wooden animal with flat wooden back with block to rub along it (a divining apparatus), Bushongo, Belgian Congo; large ceremonial ball of walrus bladder and skin, and seal hide with stitched applique' designs and hair fringes, Eskimo, Alaska; 2 lances with bamboo shafts and weighted butts, N. India; spear with spring-blade to discharge a muzzle-loading pistol on impact, Sharkhari State, N. Central India. (Glendining.) Objects excavated at Kawa, Dongola Province, A.-E. Sudan, viz.:—Two large red stone barrel-beads, 3 fragments of large red cylindrical pottery beads, 2 ditto of blue frit, 5 glazed disk beads, 3 strings of beads, globular bronze bead, small rough bronze floral bead, blue-glaze lotus flower (? inlay piece), ditto ram's head, 3 bronze urei, row of 5 (of 6) ditto on a base, small bronze Osiris triad with suspension ring, 15 bronze Osiris figures mostly of rough make, corroded fragments of large iron knife, ditto of iron split pin, ditto heads of 2 large nails, heads of 4 bronze nails, bronze split-pin, bronze staple, bronze ? washer, lump of bronze fragments, cylindrical bronze be with indented surface (? tubular drill), small carbonized spindle-whorl, piece of leaf-strip cord, remains of a carbonized cloth tassel with plaited cord, rough sun-baked pottery spoon, egg-cup shaped small pottery vessel with 4 holes at the rim, round pottery lamp with arched handle over the oil-hole, ditto with small side lugs and no handle, small subrectangular grooved pottery object (? net-weight), large oval ditto with perforations near the ends (? idem), small coarse pottery head-rest, large pottery nozzle of a bellows, large mud loom-weight, rectangular steatite kohl-pot (damaged), rectangular slate palette with cord-holes, oval pink-grey stone grinding-dish, smooth globular hammer-stone of porphyrite, ditto of grey-black rock, sub-cubical ditto of granite, small black pebble rubbing-stone, flat polislled steatite ? burnisher, spatulate ditto of hard yellow stone, sub-cylindrical drilled pebble, small triangular neolithic celt of polished black stone, butt of larger ditto, small ditto of grey granitic rock (much weathered), flat polished axe-blade of similar rock with lateral expansions at the butt for hafting, butt of similar larger axe with hafting area pecked all over, granite pick-head with 2 conical points, the haft-hole drilled from both sides, long round club-like object of friable sandstone, large sandstone slab with a human foot carved on it in relief, flat leaf-shaped fossil-bone burnisher, small brown reticulated ferruginous concretion. (Dr. F.Ll. Griffith.) Jar with elaborate gilt decoration made by moulding membrane on a clay core. Bikanir, Rajputana. (M. Soulal.) Two globular vases with double spouts and stirrup-handles with polychrome paintings on a cream surface, Ancient Peru (Nasca). (Puttick & Simpson.)

Facsimile of a cast-bronze mere made for Sir J. Banks, 1772 with his name and arms engraved. Maori. Lent by the Royal Society. Human skull (late Bronze Age) showing artificial deformation. Lapethos, Cyprus. Lent by Dr. L.H. Dudley Buxton.

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