Report of the Pitt-Rivers Museum, 1930

In order to eke out the exhibition space in the overcrowded Museum, exhibition cases were erected round two of the columns in the Court, some cabinets with glass-topped drawers and table-cases were added, and also some cases underneath existing upright cases. A number of rearrangements and redistributions of specimens has been effected, together with additional labelling.

A card-index catalogue of the collection from the Naga Hills, Assam, and from surrounding areas, has been completed to date under my direction by Mr. E.S. Thomas. This collection, numbering some thousands of objects, is probably the most complete of its kind in the world, and is chiefly due to the generosity of Dr. J.H. Hutton and Mr. J.P. Mills.

During the Long Vacation I made an ethnographical tour in northern and southern Nigeria, during which I was able to collect material of considerable interest, as well as valuable information. My work was greatly facilitated by the kind assistance and hospitality which I received from the Government officials throughout, some of whom had been former students of my own.

The usual year’s course of lectures to students for the Diploma in Anthropology was given by me, and a short course of lectures was also given to a large class of Tropical African Services students. Schools have paid many visits to the Museum for instructional purposes, and organized visits have been paid by various associations of teachers. A member of the Staff of the City Museum, Birmingham, Mr. F. Payler, came to study the Museum methods and material.

There is a long list of accessions, many of the objects being of considerable importance. Among the more noteworthy may be mentioned: a collection of about 700 cast bronze weights from Ashanti, interesting for their very varied designs and for their connexion with native proverbs, given by Captain R. P. Wild; a number of important South African stone implements from various donors; an exceptional Bushman ‘kwe’ with perfectly cylindrical perforation, given by Dr. R. Broom; numerous valuable accessions from Nigeria, from various donors; additions to the Naga collection, sent by Dr. Hutton and Mr. Mills; a set of arambai, a rare weapon from Manipur, given by Mr. J.C. Higgins; series of objects from northern Rhodesia, given by Captain T. Fox Pitt; and a collection of objects acquired by the late Sir W. Baldwin Spencer during the journey which ended in his death, given by the members of his family. Notable purchases include a fowling-piece with Forsyth’s patent detonating lock; an exceptionally fine circular stone axe-blade from Australia; and several very old Maori carvings from New Zealand, from the late Mrs. Staples Browne’s collection.
A full list is appended.

Model of 5-log sailing raft, jangadna, Ceara, N. Brazil. Presented by Spencer Williams, Esq. String of ancient glass beads, prized by natives, carved wooden snuff-flask wound with wire, Nkonde, Nyasaland. Presented by J. C. Abraham, Esq. Hand-axe of round pebble with ground cutting edge, Brindley Park, N.S.W., Australia; 3 mudstone flakes slightly trimmed and a number of unworked flakes, Orford, Nr. Hobart, Tasmania. Presented by Sir F. Knowles, Bart. Small 5-stop reed end-flute, brass sistrum for ritual use, wire armlet of beads with amulet case pendant, small sweetmeat basket, Hadramaut; small pottery lamp for toy mosque, Shaher Bander, S. Arabia; Easter cross of palm-leaf, Samothrace; 3 parchment indentures with seals (Henry IV, V, VI), safety-lamp, early bicycle-lamp, English; 2 wooden spoons (one with painting of church in bowl), Russia; distaff with carved upright fitting in the spinner's seat, Russia. Presented by A.W. Fuller, Esq. Obsidian blade of fanciful shape flaked all over, Mexico State; large subtriangular stone blade flaked all over with lateral basal notches, Highland Park, U.S.A. Presented by Prof. E.B. Poulton, D.Sc., F.R.S. Small flint pick with blunt butt partly covered with cortex and flaked in Acheulian style, found 8 feet deep in brick-earth, small ovate flint core-implement and 2 flakes, Hoxne, Suffolk. Harbija, ornamental brass pistol-ramrod carried when fire-arms were forbidden, Sokolac Taline, Bosnia. Carved wooden oblong tray, small carved wooden box shaped like a samnpan, Ainu, Yezo. Two slings of palm-leaf for mud bullets, used for scaring birds, Pemba Island, Zanzibar. Ceremonial fly whisk of coco-nut fibre, the handle carved with 2 human figures in relief, Society Islands. Snuff-box in form of an ox, made of blood and hide-scrapings moulded on clay; 20 Palaeolithic implements of Upper " Stellenbosch " types, Vaal R.; 8 small liscoidal cores of chalcedony and quartzite and 3 end-scrapers, Mission Kopje, Pniel; rough Palaeolithic pick, 2 "chopper- crapers", and a discoidal core flaked both sides, Canteen Kopje; rough implement of outside flake, 3 flakes of "Moustierian point" type, 3 racloirs, 22 end-scrapers (of which I0 very small), large chisel-ended rectangular implement of diabase, small subtriangular knife, 2 rough small discoidal cores, old patinated diabase flake reworked as scraper at one end, grey pebb1e with 2 ? artificial pits, hollow ironstone module with natural coating of red and yellow oxide suitable for paint, Alexandersfontein, Kimberley: all S. Africa. Specimens collected by donor in Nigeria l930, viz.:—A. NORTHERN NIGERIA. Two pottery saucer-lamps with pedestals, skin snuff-flask (tandu process). ditto decorated with hair-covered skin, 2 small antimony flasks of same make and ornament, 2 ditto (tandu process) with flaps, fringes, and dyed leather-work, henna powder used by women to dye their hands, gourd gauntlet worn over forearm while dyeing hands with henna, forked stick apparatus for making square wool-cord by the slipped-loop process, with cord made; 2 native made iron bodkins, leather needle-sheath, thorn-extracting forceps and point, ear-cleaner and folding razor, zunguru musical instrument gourd open at both ends, closed below against the calf and struck at the top with the hand: all Hausa, Zaria; gatarin arradu ("lightning axe"), a rough ground-stone celt bought in market, Zaria. Two axes with loop-like double-tanged blades with club-shaped decorated hafts, Sankarawa Filani, Marusa dist.; 2 kworami, push-ploughs with anchor-like blades and long shafts for turning top-soil and weeding, 8 masaniya rollers of plaited ? leaf-strip for imprinting pottery before baking, pot made by Hausa woman with masaniya ornament round the rim, strings of baobab seeds, zugara, rolled over pottery to burnish it, ball of clay and powdered mica, bakwa, used as a slip-coating in pottery-making, forked stick apparatus for making square wool-cord, Hausa: all Katsina. Specimens illustrating the tandu method of making vessels from the inner skin-layers of hides:—piece of cow-hide with endodermis and ectodermis partly separated with a special knife, two spatulate knives so used and for shaping the skin, sample of endodermal layer, ditto ectodermal layer with hair, 6 clay cores for moulding vessels upon, 5 cores covered with endodermis, skin flask with lid, handles, and ornament of hairy ectodermis, but clay core still inside, large plain vase made of endodermis only, 3 large skin milk- or churning jars complete with lids, handles, and ornament of hairy endoderms, two snuff-flasks of skin with line ornament, small antimony flask with ectodermis decoration, ditto ornamented with dye leather and strips of ectodermis, Hausa, Katsina. Strings of ancient quartz, &c. beads; getarin arradu used as a pounder, Hausa; armlet of black ? steatite, and 2 silver "Agades crosses", Tuareg; sabira, saddle-bag of dyed and embroidered goatskin leather, Hausa: all Katsina. Small triangular pieces of gourd for stamping wedge-mark designs on pottery, 3 masaniya of which one is the flowering stalk of a plant with buds removed, 2 pottery tobacco-pipes, 3 pairs of leather-mounted spurs with triple prick-spurs, 2 ditto with 4 prick-spurs, pair of ditto mounted on a leather sandal, man's loom for narrow cloth, Hausa; old glass "sun bead, 3 old glass beads, string of old beads, string of banded agate barrel-beads, 3 ring-and-triangle carnelian and agate pendants, Tuareg: all Kano. Tobacco-pipe with hide-covered pottery bowl, palm-leaf penis-sheath, Berom tribe, Vom; dance-tail of grass-stems and bark with waist-cord, Waja tribe, Gombi: all Bauchi. Four old ivory armlets (one with copper rivets), wicker basket, Mada tribe, Lafia, Nassarawa. Two ogee-sectioned socketed iron spear-heads, engraved, elaborate ceremonial axe with long narrow iron blade and haft with decorative brass castings, the blade tanged into the mouth of a human head, Makurdi; girl's belt of strung rough Achatina shell disks, ditto, ditto of smoothed disks, ivory finger-ring, 2 large round shell beads, cast-brass armlet with relief designs of cowrie-shells; 2 strings of small brass drop-beads used as currency, small wooden stand from the top of which snuff is inhaled, elaborate cast-brass snuff-taker with ring for the finger, Abinsi: all Munshi tribe, Benue Province. B. SOUTHERN NIGERIA. Perforated cooking-pot with rolled-cord pattern, 3 small rollers (carved wood and twisted cord (2)) for impressing designs on pottery, bean-tree pods for smoothing pottery, wooden comb for ornamenting pottery, small wooden bull-roarer, Yoruba; fan of white cow-skin with hair: all Abeokuta. Large pottery pipe-bowl, cowrie-shells still sometimes used as currency, Yoruba, Owo., Ondo. Lidded vessel of red and black slip with ribbed designs, 2 wooden tools for making ribbed designs on pottery, 3 carrying-bags of woven palm-leaf strip, loom for weaving leaf-strip, Inyi; brass currency rod, 23 small arrow-shaped iron currency pieces, fan of plaited palm-leaf attached to midrib, potsherds with impressed network pattern, Awgu. Two small twisted rollers for imprinting pottery-designs, 4 pottery-making tools of shell, bamboo and iron for trimming and smoothing, 2 wooden ribbing tools and a comb for pottery, barbed iron head of maniti harpoon, ditto for manati or crocodile, single- and double-pointed fishing arrow-heads, iron razor and cicatrizer, iron staff of rank with spear-head at one end and bulging twisted bars on shaft stuck in the ground in front of owner, circular spiked staff with groups of bells on shaft (emblem of a witch-doctor), small spiked iron feather-holder with 3 pock staple-shaped rest for protective amulets to prevent theft, &c., small brass-bladed dance-knife, Anambra Creek. Carved and painted horned figure, ikenga (a personal tutelary fetish), round basket of coiled fibre braced with flat lacing-weft: all Ibo, Onitsha. Decorated red and black leather-work belt worn by girls and youths, Ibo, Umuez-e-Anam. Kola nut, chewed as a stimulant and when hungry throughout Nigeria. Presented by Henry Balfour, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. Ten ancient stone celts, nyame a kuma, " thunderbolts", and 2 bronze bells found with bones, &c., at the shrine of a fetish, Abomposu, Akrokerri; stone hammer with finger-pits, Monkey Hill, Obuasi: Ashanti. Eleven ground-stone celts from diamond gravels, Akwatia, I ditto, Topiramang, I ditto, Kokotentin, hammer-stone with finger-pits, Tarkwa; 2 sandstone blocks for ? grinding celts, Nsuta, rough flaked quartz ovate (? Palaeolithic) Achiasi, round flat bauxite bead, pick shaped barbed weapon tanged in an angular shaft covered with hide and monitor-skin, Northern Territory: all Gold Coast. Stone celt, Bekwai, 4 ditto, Akrokerri, I ditto, Jimisu, 2 ditto, Jim Abofru, 4 ditto, Bibiani; 6 ditto, I long fine narrow ditto with finely faceted surface, Offin R.; I5 stone celts, 6 quartzite hammer-stones with finger-pits, rubbing-stone with groove on one side, small broken rubbing-stone, series illustrating casting of silver ornaments from cuttle-bone moulds, Obuasi; piece of sandstone with friction cross-grooves, Fommena; slag from ancient iron-smelting furnace, wooden comb, Akrokerri; series of 605 " gold-weights " of many designs, ditto of 88 pieces: all Ashanti. Presented by Capt. R.P. Wild. Tiger cowrie-shell with the Lord's Prayer cameo-carved upon it, 4 ornamental turtle-shell combs carved and moulded, small silk and ivory fan with mirror, 7 early portrait photographs: all early and mid-nineteenth century English. Presented by Mrs. C.E. Barrett-Lennard. Three native tops of nutshell (one loaded with metal), Mambwe, N. Rhodesia, small grotesque fir-cone figure, Moravia. Presented by G.R. Carline, Esq. Packet of very virulent arrow-poison for hunting elephant, &c., N'Dorobo, Kenya Colony. Presented by L.S.B. Leakey, B.A. Specimens collected by donor in Borneo, viz.:— Sword, mandau with carved antler pommel and inscribed blade; 2 casques and upper mandibles of Hornbill used for carving into ornaments, Mahakam R., brass and silver sireh box for betel-chewing materials, Banjermassim: Dutch Borneo. Bronze olqiicial measure, ganting with Arabic script in relief,large bronze kettle (cire-perdue casting) with relief figures of animals, &c., Brunei, N. Borneo. Gourd flask encased in cane-work with silver nozzle; conical woven hat with carved wooden rim, Dusun: British North Borneo.Two repousse-work silver tobacco-boxes, Macassar, Celebes, ditto Bali Island, Dutch E. Indies. Pair of primitive shoes (rivlin type), Roumania. Presented by H.L. Chittenden, Esq. Two short stout bows (one wrapped in monitor-skin with cowries to ensure success), wooden quiver with 6 iron-pointed poisoned arrows with unilateral nocks, 3 similar arrows, Konkomba tribe, Dagomba, Gold Coast. Presented by H.A. Blair, Esq. Woman's large wooden ear-stud with short chains and cowrie attached, 3 curved ring-knives worn on the finger, Ba-Kuria tribe, Musoma, NW. Tanganyika Territory. Presented by E.C. Baker, Esq. Two sandstone cutters and 2 ditto polishers for working nephrite, 4 flakes of siliceous stone and 2 of obsidian, Maori, Otago, S. Island, N.Z. Presented by J.B. Robieson, Esq. Small ground-stone axe-blade, Longreach Dist., Central Queensland. Presented by C.B. Inman, Esq. Lacquered case of 4 tablets of Chinese ink decorated with a continuous scene in low relief and inscribed on the reverse, China. Presented by Mr. Y.C. Lou. Specimens collected in Assam (c. 1904) by the late Rev. E M.Hadow, viz:— Axe with spreading V-shaped blade, long single-edged sword and scabbard with red hair fringe on grip, ditto chopping-sword with hooked tip engraved with an eye on each side. Two short swords, daos, in open sheaths with belts, ? Kachin. Dao with short broad blade and goat's-hair fringe, pair of ear-pendants with long black and red hair tassels, Konyak; open-work carrying basket, joppa, red and yellow basket-work hat with red hair fringe-crest, ditto of brown cane-work decorated with pig's bristles, groin-cloth, lengta, of white cotton with wax designs; 2 tobacco-pipes with iron bowls and cane-work over stems, one ditto with wooden bowl and bamboo " nicotine "-catcher, Ao; cotton-cloth baldric with red goat's-hair fringe and cowrie ornament, Ao or Sema; head of hornbill worn on the neck behind, Lhota; drink-horn of mithan's horn with cane-work and red hair fringe, Chang; 2 neck-ornaments each made of 2 large boars' tusks mounted with shell square and carnelian beads: all Naga Hills. Presented by Mrs. Hadow. Specimens collected by donor in the Santal Parganas, Bengal, viz.:— Thirty stone celts of late Stone-Age types more or less ground, 3 damaged ground-stone celts reshaped by flaking, 4 narrow stone celts of chisel type, 2 triangular ditto ground with wide cutting edge dulled, 2 shouldered stone celts with large tangs, ovate hammer-stone bored from each side, hone-stone, natur stone, 23 ancient beads of banded agate, 8 ditto of milky-white ? agate, 9 ditto of various stones, 5 ditto chalcedony, 5 " leopard-claws " of chalcedony (all these beads are used as amulets against dysentery). Presented by Rev. P.O. Bodding. Ten small stone arrow-heads (one with lateral notches), one larger ditto much weathered, Timimoun, Guara Oases, Central Sahara. Presented by L.T. Scott, Esq. Piece of gourd-rind for smoothing and shaping pots, Old Merowe, E. Sudan. Presented by Prof. F.Ll. Griffith, M.A. After-birth of a child preserved in a fusiform bead-covered bundle, Cheyenne, Montana, U.S.A.; spoon of mountain.goat's horn with totemic designs of animals, &c., Haida, N.W. America. Presented by W.H. Mechlin, Esq. Model of a Sesse Islands canoe, Buganda, NW. Victoria, Nyanza, B.E.A. Presented by C.G.T. Morison, M.A. Sawangan, double wooden pigeon-whistle attached to pigeon's tail feathers, Solo, C. Java; cylindrical wooden ditto, Sundari, hung on pigeon's neck, Lombok Island, Malay Archipelago. Presented by Dr. J. Kunst. Very perfect perforated stone ball of 'Kwe' type, smooth with almost cylindrical bore, 2 conical pounding? stones (one broken), Douglas, Griqualand West, S.A. Presented by Dr. R. Broom. Easter egg dyed magenta, with a floral pattern produced by "stopping out " with wax, Brno, Moravia. Presented by Rev. Dr. E.O. James. Two mushroom-shaped coiled basketry ornaments, gindi, worn by pagan married women over the buttocks, N. Nigeria. Presented by C.V. Williams, Esq. Two Lower-Palaeolithic implements (" Stellenbosch " type) with " tranchet " edge, Vaal R., Barkly West; 2 pointed-ovate cone implements, Longlands, Van Vreden; 3 side-scrapers of Moustierian type, thick discoidal core, large broad patinated flake flake-scarred over one side, Alexandersfontein, near Kimberley; side-scraper and end-scraper of diabase, end-scraper with spur in centre of bevelled edge, curiously weathered piece of diabase, Koffiefontein; 2 long necklets of strung ostrich-egg disks with spacing wads, necklet of native-made copper beads, ? Bushman; Swazi girl's skirt of cloth fringed with a large chain of grass-links worn at initiation, E. Transvaal; very rare globular " bag " of cow-hide with basketry neck and carrying-thong, no locality: all S.Africa. Presented by Miss M. Wilman. Five fringed grass " tails " worn by married women, Berom pagan tribe, Buji; large wooden spoon, Jere, Jos; 3 large black pottery tobacco-pipes with thorn-studded stems, Angass, near Jos; 2 pairs of iron greaves, each with prick-spur attached, ?locality: all N. Nigeria. Presented by H. Hale Middleton, Esq. Two ground-stone celts and a slightly edge-flaked schist pebble, Okuku, Ogoja, S. Nigeria. Presented by G.I. Jones, Esq. Ori decorated sub-conical leather-work case with inset cowries containing amulets, &c., Yoruba, Ibadan, S. Nigeria. Presented by P.F. Herbert, Esq. Sioux pipe-bowl of catlinite (I865), Minnesota, U.S.A.; 4 objects of pottery (figure of an animal, handles with modelled faces, curved rod with circle-design) from a cairn, Nilghiri Hills; 18 brass and copper stamps for imprinting patterns in wood-ash on bodies of devotees, Hindu, Benares; carrying-chair borne on bearer's back with brow-band, Khasi Hills, N. India; decorated cradle for suspension from trees, &c., Montreal, Canada; 2 seals (wood and soap-stone)with characters in relief, Chinese. Presented by Dr. Griffith Evans, M.D., D.Sc. Celt-like stone (? natural) found in gravels, Sao Antonio R., Bahia, Brazil; side-scraper (Moustierian type), leaf-shaped blade flaked all over, and 4 tanged stone lance-heads, from gold dredge-tailings, Tierra del Fuego coast; 2 narrow ovate quartzite blades flaked all over, from diamond gravel, Ischikapa Centre, Kasai R., Congo State. Presented by G. R. Nicolaus, Esq. Spear-head made by natives of glass, small ditto mounted in gum on spear-shaft end, Port Darwin, N. Central Australia. Presented by Mrs. Sidney Ball. Four wooden tubular tobacco-pipes, Gran Chaco Indians, Paraguay; II fragments of ancient pottery, Pucará Mt., Tilcara, Bolivia. Presented by A Griffith, M.A. Twenty arambai, iron-pointed hollow darts of peacock's feathers flung with a stick thrust in the hollow, with lacquered quiver, Imphal, Manipur State; brush for cloth on the loom, Kabui, W. Manipur Hills. Presented by J.C. Higgins, Esq., I.C.S. Model of lake canoe, small covered basket of spiral technique in black and white triangles, long tapering basketry milk-pot cover branching into "horns", Bukoba, W. Victoria, Nyanza; 2 tobacco-pipes with black pottery bowls (one twin-bowled), Bugabu, ibid.; 4 similar pipes with hinged pottery bowl-covers, Misenyi: all E. Central Africa. Presented by P.E. Mitchell, Esq. Orra, short curved wooden fencing-foil, Tellicherri, N. Malabar, S. India. Pnesented by Mr. M.D. Raghavan. Nine ground-stone celts mostly with slight tangs, Lazami, Naga Hills. Cane-work helmet with hide cuirass and greaves, boy's wooden cross-bow and 4 arrows, small ground-snare for birds, spring bird-snare set in trees, bamboo loop-hoe, comb-shaped paddi rake, plaited figure of a gibbon (scarecrow), rice-beer funnel of gourd, bamboo drinking-mug, old wooden drinking-horn, 2 long iron socketed spear-heads made for currency, basketry house-ornament with wooden pendants to rattle in the wind, spirit-scare of bamboo and feathers set up where earth is slipping or stream encroaching, wooden spear-head for a house-door to avert evil spirits, carved figure of an old man in warrior's garb, 2 wooden implements for making wax designs on cloth, dance coronet of bearskin with hornbill plumes on spikes, tubular cloth belt-purse, 3 ornamental cloth baldrics with coloured wool embroidery, cloth of a man who has done no gennas, cloth of a man who has sacrificed mithan (buffalo), young man's cloth, ditto of one who has given all due "feasts of merit", Rengma; 10 spathe-"feathered " cross-bow arrows and quiver, pair of round brass dance-cymbals hung on the arm, man's transverse bamboo flute, double transverse ditto, 2 small ornamental presentation baskets, carved wooden seated figure, woman's ancient fluted armlet of cast brass with mushroom-shaped studs, man's bead collar with cast-brass pendant (human face), warrior's hip-ornaments (10) carved of wood representing serow horns, human figures, or both (some with real horns) ornamented with fringes of dyed hair with long plumes of human hair below, groin covering (lengta) elaborately ornamented with cowries worn by a rich man who has taken heads, woman's waist-cord of human hair, Konyak; wooden notched tally, man's striped cloth, rich man's cloth with lines denoting mithan sacrificed, woman's cloth, Sema; carved tobacco-pipe, the bowl a human head, with 2 figures on the stem, Phom; small strainer of grass for rice-beer lees, doll made of a maize-head with tassel for hair, well-modelled clay head (house-ornament) with hair and cotton ear-ornaments, boar-tusk necklace worn by man who has killed a tiger, bear, &c., wooden tail with black-grass fringe edged with red wool and with abrus-seed ornament, tasselled hip-ornament indicative of gallantry, pair of grass-work armlets made for a man by his mistress, 2 pairs of woven baldrics embroidered with coloured wool, pair of grass-work gaiters for a man who takes a head, 3 cloths for young men, woman's skirt, Eastern Angami; pair of woven baldrics with coloured wool embroidery, ditto for young men, Western Angami; warrior's chest-ornament of wood covered with dyed hair-fringes and cowries with collar similarly decorated, sporran of rods covered with coloured wool, man's waist-belt of white cotton cloth, pair of dance-armlets of red-embroidered cotton, pair of grass-work gaiters, 3 pairs of white cotton baldrics embroidered with coloured wool, man's cloth kilt with cowrie ornament, cloth woven of nettle-fibre, 2 cloths of white with black and pink patterns, Angami; lengta elaborately decorated with ground cowries and with 2 sambhar tines over a brass disk, Chang; head of hornbill with pellet-bells worn at the back of the neck, cloth of a man who has dragged a stone, cloth of wife of ditto, ditto, Lhota; cloth of a rich woman, Ao; 2 men's cloths, S. Sangtam; heavy thick white cotton cloth with cotton flock overlay, Kacha Naga; man's cloth with vari-coloured woven border, man's cloth, Thado Kuki; skirt of a rich man's wife, Yachungr: all Naga Hills. Man's dance-kilt of cotton cloth, Kabui Naga, Fullertol Kachar; small carved stone cyst for ashes of the dead, Boloson, N. Cachar Hills. Presented by J.P. Mills, Esq., I C.S. Two broken black pottery female heads showing cranial deformation, Mangbettu, Welle dist.; 2 ground-stone haematite celts, Bahr el Ghazal; brown flake trimmed at one end to an edge, Gebel Sillok, Dar Fung, Central Africa. Presented by E.E. Evans-Pritchard, Esq. Specimens collected in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 1930, viz.:— Bow, fish-arrow, harpoon-arrow for pigs, Chariar tribe, N. Andaman. Bow, fish-arrow, Bojigab, S. Andaman. Bow, aai, fish-arrow, batoi, woman's string-work belt with tassel, cane-work belt of elderly female notable, young man's necklet of dentalium shell, Onge tribe, Little Andaman. Cross-bow with toggle release, slender cross-bow arrow, 2 small round baskets of coco-nut palm, headband of palm-spathe, jingle from a house with wooden pendants in form of axes and daos, Car Nicobar. Inhal frame-net used in fishing with a weighted line, fire-making set (sawing process), Chaura Island. Pair of bamboo whistles plugged with wax to revolve on a pivoted vane and sound in the wind, Champen, Nankauri; model of large outrigger canoe with long bow and stern ornaments: all Nicobar Islands. Presented by Dr. J.H. Hutton, D.Sc., C.I.E. Pin-fire revolver (1876) with cartridges, Webley's percussion revolver with pivoted ramrod in case with accessories, English. Chequer-work basket with 17 compartments, ?Malayan. Presented by C.W. Hurst, Esq. Brass casting (cire perdue) of man shooting a monkey and man climbing a tree, ditto with group of figures, 2 (male and female) figures cast in brass united by brass links, modern Benin, S. Nigeria. Presented by Mrs. Harold Aveling. Ground-stone celt, gatarin arradu, Aba; tandun tozali, twin antimony flasks made by the tandu process, Hausa: Zaria, N. Nigeria. Presented by Lt.-Commr. A.G.G. Webb, R.N. White cotton cloth with woven and embroidered designs in coloured wool, ?Damerghu, French W. Africa. Presented by Dr. and Mrs. Sanders. Elaborately carved ceremonial paddle, Hervey Islands (c. 1840). Presented by Donald Gunn, Esq. Specimens collected in W. Africa, viz.:-- Four pieces of iron "spear-head" money, Ba-Koko) Bipindi; l0 ditto derived from spear-heads or knives, M'Velle tribe, Yaunde; 2 small carved and blackened wooden bowls, M'Velle, N'Quarban: all Camerun. Cross-bow with split wooden stock, 2 small leaf-"feathered" darts, 2 ditto not "feathered", French Congo; bow-like musical instrument of raffia-palm midrib
with 4 strings split away from it and with 3 gourd resonators, Camerun. Presented by Major Powell Cotton Two socketed elaborately barbed spears, Hausa, W. Sokoto, N. Nigeria. Presented by F. de F. Daniel, Esq. Eight counterfeit coins (florins and shillings), Yoruba country, S. Nigeria. Presented by W.J.W. Norcott, Esq. Specimens collected in N. Rhodesia, viz.:— Light decorated axe carried on visits, man's hair-comb of wood with carved elephant on tbe top, false beard of fibre for comic dances, top of a staff with carved figure, Ma-Lovale or Ma-Luchaze; 3 iron-headed featherless arrows, 2 iron-tanged spear-heads, short broad beheading-sword in brass-mounted hide sheath (from Angola), carved bamboo snuff-box, diviner's rod moved to and fro on the ground, stopping when answer is "yes", divining instrument of 2 wooden slabs rubbed together which stick when answer is "yes", diviner's basket of miscellaneous objects (for divining and taking omens) with skin coverings, similar ditto without coverings, dumb-bell shaped rattle with bells used by diviner with above, small rattle of fruit-shell used as above, network costume of Likishi dancer covering whole body and limbs, fringed skirt of shredded bark worn over the above, piece of coarse bark-cloth, Ma-Lovale; wooden feathered arrow with carved barbs for shooting monkeys, ditto with blunt head for stunning birds, 12 hunting arrows with iron heads, heavy carved wooden mask of a Makishi dancer, Ma-Luchaze; 2 cane-work head-dresses decorated with wydah feathers worn by Zambesi boatmen, vase-like winnowing basket, Ma-Lunda: all Ba-Lovale, Upper Zambesi. Model of short obsolete iron elephant-spear, Ma-Lunda, Upper Zambesi. Long tanged iron spear-head, tanged ditto with barbs, Ba-Ila, Kafue R. Two iron-headed feathered arrows poisoned with ulemba, Ma-Liuwa, Sinono R. Double bladed tanged iron spear-head (of Ma-Kwambi tribe, Portuguese Angola). Presented by Capt. T.S. Fox Pitt. Two flint implements (Chellean type) flaked all over, Gant's Pit, Dovercourt; large heavy curved flint-flake worked on one side to form scraping-edge, Ipswich; 14 implements and flakes (derived "Cromerian") of "Combe Capelle" level, scraper and 12 flakes from Upper Palaeolithic layer, 6 core implements and 21 more or less worked flakes from Terrace 2, "Combe Capelle" level, scraper and 12 flakes from an Upper Palaeolithic layer, 3 scrapers, 3 spalls, and 4 flakes from a Neolithic floor, Gipping Valley, Bramford; 39 rough cores and flakes from a ?Madeleinean layer, Orwell Estuary: all Suffolk. Five rough patinated flint implements of proto-Chellean type, Cromer, Norfolk. Presented by J. Reid Moir, Esq. Ten Easter eggs dyed and patterned by stopping-out, showing method, spoon for melting wax used in process, small oil-lamp for melting wax, hollow pen on transverse stick for drawing design in wax, small rough cog-wheel rattle of wood, Moravia. Presented by Prof. F. Pospisil. Specimens collected in S. Africa, viz.:— Two large sheets of brown bark-cloth, chivenula, strips of bark showing stages in process of making cloth, 2 chayo, grooved hammers for beating out the bark, 3 iron hair-cutting razors, knife for cicatrizing the skin, small iron hook for raising cicatrices, brass finger-ring for fighting, carved wooden snuff-flask, Chopi Land; triple-twilled basket with loop handle, 2 draped dolls made of strychnos fruit-shells, Shangaan-Chopi; large ancient red and white glass bead, one of two belonging to a witch-doctor who believed his " life " was in them: all Gazaland, Portuguese E. Africa. Carved wooden lidded-box engraved, with pedestal, wooden cup with wide three-barred handle carved in one piece. Presented by Rev. D.F. Stowell, M.A. Specimens collected by the late Sir W. Baldwin Spencer, D.Sc., F.R.S., during his last journey, in Patagonia and Fuegia, viz .:— Complete boleras, stone bolas, and a number of stone implements from the coast of Patagonia; sling, bone spear-and harpoon-heads, bone wedges and awls, and many stone implements from the island of Navarin, Fuegia. Presented by the members of his family.

Kaluri, gourd mouth-organ, bamboo shuttle carved and inscribed (Arabic); carved thread-winder, carved bamboo tube, Sea Dayak; 2 carved bamboo tobacco-pipes, Land Dayak; funerary " soul-boat" with figures of men and guns, Belum Milano: all Sarawak. Model of single-outrigger canoe with platforms, Hermit Islands, Melanesia; 2 obsidian daggers, Admiralty Island. Single-barrel fowling-piece (earliest "percussion" type, 1807). Two carved and painted wooden figures, ?Kachin, Burma. Specimens collected in New Zealand by Mr. J.B. Robieson, viz.:— Twenty-three stone adzes and fragments, partly ground adze, flaked basalt ditto, ditto flaked and ground, small ground stone chisel, cutting ends of 2 small ditto, part of grooved pommel of a stone mere, obsidian scraper, broken ground nephrite point, broken nephrite ?ear-pendant, piece of whitt stone pendant stone-drilled, small ground nephrite slab, quartz-flake burin, red quartzite core, 5 reamers for boring stone, long black stone ?borer, 3 flaked sub-cylindrical stones, I6 edged stones for grooving nephrite, a large number of stone flakes, many showing signs of use, 2 barbed bone lance-heads, point of a ditto, 3 bone ?fish-hooks, bone ?awl, 2 small bone cylinder, sharp piece of ?cetacean bone, bone needle with drilled eye (broken), rare lance-head made of a ray-spine, carved: all Maori (Stevens). Specimens from New Zealand (old Maori), viz.:— Block of nephrite with deep cuts, slightly tanged stone adze-blade, finely ground ditto, small tanged green-stone ditto, quartz-flake knife with " hinge-fracture " stone-drilled bone needle, 4 bone fish-hook points, 3 unfinished bone fish-hooks cut out with stone-drills, 3 fish-hook points made of jawbones of extinct dog,pawa (Haliotis) shell containing red ochre paint, ancient carved bone flute, koauau, Moa (Dinornis) toe-bone with carved face and haliotis eyes, cachalot-tooth pendant with carved face, toggle of carved albatross wing-bone (J.B. Robieson). Long compound lacquered bow, Japan; short wooden club, Samoa; long wooden glaive-club, Niue; long flat spearthrower, Queensland; twined wicker basket, fringe skirt of opossum-fur string-work, ditto of string-work, reed-stem bead ornament, Finke R., C. Australia; string-work bag with coix-seed ornament coco-nut cup, SE. New Guinea; carved ebony lime-spatula, Massim, New Guinea; belt of coloured grass and orchid stem, Solomon Islands; basketry cassava-strainer (model), British Guiana; trumpet of human bone, Thibet; carved wooden spoon, Persia; 3 wooden head-rests united by chains, all carved from one block, S. Africa; round wooden tripod-stool inlaid with brass, copper, and iron wire, ? Nyasaland; cow-horn armlet snuff-box, S. Africa; gourd rattle with external pellets, N. Nigeria; bell-shaped iron war-gong, Bangala, Kasai, Congo State; elephant-tusk side-blast trumpet, ?Congo. Wooden hairpin with dyed hair ornament; spear with shaft covered with coloured hair ornament, Konyak; ditto with red and yellow cane-work, Angami; spear with obsolete barbed blade and with long cord attached to shaft-butt: all Naga Hills. Long iron-bladed spear, Sarawak; 9 socketed iron spears with iron-bound butts and (mostly) barbed heads, ?Darfur; long spear with large leaf-shaped blade, spear with leather-wound shaft and ogee-blade, ?E. Sudan; 2 leaf-bladed pears with iron-wound butts, ? E. Africa; spear with small leaf blade and iron spatulate butt, ?Bornu; lozenge-bladed spear with ornamented hide-covered shaft and spiked butt; single-membrane barrel-drum used for signalling, Gold Coast, W. Africa. Very fine large elliptical stone axe-blade ground over and pecked for hafting, Cloncurry, Queensland; spear with barbed head and shaft carved with human figures, Land Dyak; short hard-wood blow-gun with iron spear-head at one end, Sarawak; blow-gun with wrapped tube and painted mouthpiece for shooting fish, Malayali, Malabar, S. India; combined axe and match-gun of steel, India; short sabre with carved dragon-hilt (obsolete), Ceylon; executioner's sword with long blade and handle, China; 2 archers' ivory wrist-guards (rare and obsolete), ivory armlet, Kuki, Manipur; amulet of carved wooden figures (man and animals) strung together, Madagascar; 2 rudely carved memorial figures of men on horseback set up a year after death, Kafiristan, N. India; decorated bowl of coiled basketry, Ancient Peru; 2 heavy bolas of 3 balls sewn up in raw hide, light two-ball bola perdita with one ball of lead, Patagonia; curiously hafted adze of turtle-bone, Lukunor, Caroline Islands; pandat, angular iron sword with cross-guard, Land Dyak, Sarawak; ceremonial chopper with swinging points on blade, no locality; pottery pipe-bowl with relief figures of leopard and buffalo, Mashu-kulumbwe, Kafue R., N. Rhodesia; stone muller for red ochre, Andaman Islands; rectangular reef-sandal of palm-cord Mangaia; shark-rattle of coco-nut shells, large fish-hook with trochus shell point, New Ireland; ditto made of a branch-fork with bard lashed on, Tarawa Island; ovulum shell jingle to attract turtle, Maiana Island; curved fish-hook of ? Turtle carapace bone, Maraki Island: Gilbert Islands. Flint-lock musket with inlaid lock and stock, Turkish; carved and painted wooden shield, curved club and 2 straight clubs with flute surfaces, Queensland; parrying-shield with cut-out grip, with linear designs on front, Victoria; short heavy pointed club Finke R., Central Australia; tortoise-shaped pottery vessel, Fiji Islands; twisted hide lasso, ?Araucania (Hooper). Iron fat-lamp on tripod, Reichmar, Switzerland; engraved saw-edged sickle, 7 Asia Minor; old sickle with serrated edge Brittany (C.V. Goddard). Specimens of Eastern currency collected by J. Hamilta Evans, viz.:— Long fusiform silver ingot with relief ornament from Laos (1918), ? Shan. Hollow silver bubble, N. Lao; 2 pieces of early horseshoe-shaped silver tical money, and old kidney-shaped form of ditto with Government stamp, Siam. Hollow silver bubble, Trengganu, Malay States; 7 porcelain gambling-counters used formerly as currency by Chinese traders, Bangkok; dollar token of London Borneo Tobacco Co., Sarawak; 2 Chinese "cash"-coins bound together with copper (purpose unknown), 5 small bronze weights cast in animal form, Shan States, Burma (J.H. Evans). Sapho, cuirass of rhinoceros-hide of obsolete and rare type, Thado-Kuki, Manipur (J.H. Hutton). Spiral pendant ornament of green corn-stalks, Overbury, Worc. (C.J. Stanley).
Tanged iron spear-head with ogee-sectioned blade and tanged iron head of axe or hoe dug up in Rift Valley, Baringo district, Kenya Colony, B.E.A. Lent by K.G. Lindsay, Esq.


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