Report of the Pitt Rivers Museum 1925

The fitting up of a long new range of wall-cases in the Upper Gallery was completed, and the extensive comparative series of spears has been arranged in these cases, to great advantage since the delicate spears will now be properly protected from damage. The exhibits are primarily in geographical groups, but within each group the classification is mainly typological. A few special synoptic groups have been added to illustrate special points. This important work occupied a considerable time, as it was incidentally necessary to re-label a large number of the specimens. A great amount of re-labelling has been done throughout the Lower Gallery by Mr. E.S. Thomas and there has been considerable re-arrangement of series to bring them up to date. Some second-hand wall-cases with metal frames were purchased for this gallery and will be used for the improved exhibition of certain groups. Their erection has involved much redistribution of series. The Gallery, which has had to be closed to the public for some time, will be reopened in time for the meeting of the British Association in August.

In the Court a much-needed rearrangement of the Ceramic series has been commenced, and other readjustments have been executed. Some cabinets with glass-topped drawers have been added to eke out the exhibition space.

The usual annual courses of lectures to Diploma students were given by me in all three Terms. Several persons engaged in research work have made use of the collections in the Museum and have received help of various kinds from me. If is gratifying to note how many of the former students in the Museum have been engaged in field work and in other lines of ethnological and archaeological research. A number of schools and other educational bodies took advantage of facilities offered to them for study in the Department, and this use of the Museum tends to increase.

Serious damage was caused through the extremely faulty condition of the roof which has for a long while leaked very badly. Owing to prolonged delay in starting the roof repairs, the damage done to specimens and fittings was very considerable, and a great deal of the Attendant’s time was wasted in endeavouring to protect the cases and objects from the rain. The roof never has been satisfactory, but much might be done if leakages could be promptly attended to, and much expense would be saved.

The list of accessions is a very satisfactory one. Of the donations received the following are, perhaps, the most noteworthy: Captain R.S. Rattray’s collection of magical objects from Ashanti; Mr. J.H. Driberg’s specimens from the Lango tribe, Uganda; the collection of S. American objects obtained and presented by Major R.H. Thomas; the important series of specimens collected by Mr. and Mrs. W. Scoresby Routledge during their last voyage to Polynesia; and a fine series of “palaeoliths” from the Cape Province, S. Africa, received from the Macgregor Museum, Kimberley.

A detailed list of the accessions is appended.

Double reed pipes, zummarah, Egypt; wart-hog tusk holding witch doctor's "medicine" collected by A.D. Woodward, Magila, Usambara, E. Arrica; ear-plug of rolled-up palm-leaf, Mashora, N. Tanganyika territory; depilating forceps, 'Ngosa tribe. Wooden crossbow rat-trap, kisa cha mbewa, Wa Chagga, Moshi district; wicker fish-trap, mugono, Bukoba district; funnel fish-trap, dema, of wicker, baited and sunk in shallow water, Suaheli, Kilwa district; 3 U-shaped basketry funnel-mouthed fish-traps; cruciform wicker fish-trap, dema, with 4 entrances; fish-trap of plaited palm leaves, closed by drawing-strings; a similar trap made of rods; bilobed ear pendant, ngo shole, of tin, Wa Chagga, Moshi district: all Tanganyika territory. Presented by G.R. Carline. Round bossed leather shield, transfixed vertically by a parrying stick, a bag-like skin with long hair is slid on to the upper part, and long hair bound to the lower, Nuer tribe, Lake No, White Nile, Sudan. Collected by Major W. Sherlock Lennon, and presented by Mrs. Lennon. Stone pipe bowl, found in the desert, Senussi border, Libyan desert. Presented by Dr. R.R. Marett, D.Sc. Large sheet of bark cloth, Tekiman, N. Ashanti, W. Africa. A collection of 31 suman or fetishes (charms and amulets) formerly belonging to a " priest ", okomfo, a Christian convert. They consist variously of strings, horns, and shells covered with or containing "medicine", mirrors, &c, ornamented with cloth, hair, hide, &c., and are in object defensive and offensive, and for seeing the invisible, predicting the future, &c. Collected and presented by Capt. R.S. Rattray, B.Sc. Five flint or chert cores from which flints have been struck, Makertou, Iraq. Collected by the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. Presented by the British Museum. Eight Carib stone axe-blades, all but one shaped for hafting, Trinidad Island, W. Indies. Collected by the Rev. P. le Maistre between 1847 and 1882 and presented by F. le Maistre. Primitive clarinet of reed, open below, closed by a node above; 2 finger stops, and vibrating tongue cut below the node. Found on the shore near Pollenza (Puerto), N. Mallorca, Balearic Islands, by donor; lump of chalk with marks of deer antler picks, from the ancient flint-mine, Harrow Hill, Sussex. Presented by O.G.S. Crawford, M.A. Mediaeval thimble of cast brass, found in Oxford, 1897; small conical fish-trap lined with thorny midribs of calamus palm obtained by donor from the Liye-Lhota Nagas, Naga Hills; a similar trap from the Sangtam Nagas; double trepanning saw and " elevator ", modern English; 2 large ear-rings of brass—one a single ring, the other of concentric rings, both with pendants, Sarawak, Borneo; Zulu assegai, Natal; Kaffir assegai, S. Africa; spear with socketed iron blade mounted on short shaft with crocodile skin, E. Africa; spear with leaf-shaped socketed iron blade, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan; arrows blunt and sharp, with long feathers, Manchu. Presented by H. Balfour, M.A., F.R S., F.S.A. The following were presented by the Royal Geographical Society, viz.: Long two handed one-edged dao sword with wooden scabbard, Lisu tribe, Salween valley, W. Yunan, collected by G. J. Litton; wooden powder flask with spring valve of horn, ?Persia; wooden door-lock with metal tumblers and wooden key, Coptic, Egypt. Long spouted coffee-pot of solid wood; wooden double-clappered camel bell, kor, iron-bladed adze with angular haft, yudummo; hide whip, jedal, for chastising women; quiver, gaboyi, of hide-covered wood, with strap, knife-sheath, and arrows: all Somaliland (1898). Iron hoeing-knife with ogee sectioned blade; long leaf-shaped sword, scabbard and hide belt: both Kikuyu, Kenya Province, E. Africa. Single-edged chopping knife, brass-hilted, with large circular pommel, ?Mobangi, Congo State. Two-edged round-ended knife, hilted as above, Congo State; broad-bladed pointed knife, wooden hilt, and carved wooden sheath for a knife, both Bakuba; knob-ended arrow, wooden head, shaft of palm-leaf rib, butt feathered and notched, Kasai R., Congo State. Antelope skin quiver with 6 arrows of palm-leaf rib, 3 with barbed wooden blades, 3 with iron socketed heads, ?BaSongo Meno; piece of grass cloth woven in lozenge pattern; small cap of fine spiral basketry, piece of a cake of native red dye made from tukula wood: all Kasai R. Brass long-stemmed native tobacco-pipe, Congo State; native coil of tobacco, Upper Congo; trumpet of elephant tusk, ? BaNgala, Congo State (the above 12 items from Sir F. Goldsmid's collection); leather cord ornamented with cowrie shells, worn by dancing girls, Eastern Sudan. Katana Japanese short sword-blade mounted as a collector's piece with plain wooden hilt and scabbard, dated circ. 1138. Presented by Sir A. Garrod. Specimens from the Eskimo, and graves of the Tu-nu-ne-nulit tribe near Pond's Inlet, and Eclipse Sound, N. Baffinland, viz: pair of small figures, man and woman, showing winter costume in detail; hooded jacket, ke-le-taitg, of seal's intestine; worn in the Kayak canoe; bone snow-knife probably for beating snow from clothing, an ancient, partly decayed snow-knifej with 3 broken blades for snow-knives, from graves. Bone knife for squeezing water from skins; bone snow-knife handle; 4 handles of bone, antler, and ivory, grooved for iron blades (one in situ); 3 scrapers of seal scapula, stone, and bone-mounted iron for scraping skins; drill bow of walrus tusk; bone socket for bow drill; 2 bone tools used for flaking in making stone implements; 11 toggle-harpoon-heads of various types; piece of ivory (broken), perforated and apparently grooved for an iron blade; small flat piece of shaped bone (end broken): all the above implements from graves. Three young walrus' tusks, ?Marling-spikes; grinding teeth of walrus (use unknown); a detachable walrus ivory foreshaft of a harpoon; 5 ivory harpoon-shaft butts; rough stone spear or harpoon-blade; 2 toggles of ivory and bone probably for seal-dragging lines; 2 ivory "eyes" for sledge-dog traces; ivory short-toothed comb for ?cleaning furs; short tube made of a wing bone (?a needle case); 2 rough perforated bone weights (? fishing-line sinkers); thin ivory plaque hair ornament, with dot patterns and perforations for pendants; small carved bone (?runner of a toy sledge); tubular rod of narwhal tusk with shouldered ends, 4 shaped bone rods, and 2 wedge-shaped pieces of bone and ivory, use unknown; 2 cut ends of walrus tusk. The above collection presented by Capt. H. Toke Munn. Hollow gourd rattle with elaborate mushroom-shaped handle fringed with dyed feathers, used in the Hula hula dances, Hawaii 1882; Early Chinese pottery figure of a performer on the syrinx. Presented by L.C.G. Clarke, M.A. Specimens collected among the Lango tribe, Uganda Protectorate, by the donor, viz.: Iron spear head, leaf-shaped and socketed; iron spear butt, the quadrangular point sometimes used as a drill; pigskin sandal, lamo war, also used in divination; 2 married women's leather belts edged with glass and iron heads, respectively, and girdle of plaited hide with string-work apron, chip, in front and stiff tail behind; 2 similar girdles, del, the apron fringed with iron chain work; lau, flexible leather tail worn behind by mothers; 2 brow-chaplets of trade bead strings worn by women; heavy penannular brass armlet worn by both sexes; tobacco-pipe with pottery bowl and tin stem; large brass end flute, atula, of water-buck horn with 3 finger stops; 2 horn war-flutes, echoich, with small stop at the tip, one with 2 long tail attachments; arupapa or apel, dance side-trumpet of antelope horn with small terminal stop and tail ornament. Presented by J.H. Driberg. Carving-burin of sharks' teeth inserted at each end of a stick, Trobriand Islands; palm-leaf and bark messages, engravings thereon representing bearer of a honey-pot yoke sent by Veddas to honey gatherers indicating need of honey, Ceylon. Presented by Dr. C.G. Seligman, M.D., F.R.S. Carved wooden head-rest, ? Mashonaland, S. Africa. Sansa, musical instrument with vibrating tongues, carved animal-headed doll smoking a pipe; carved wooden toy baboon: all S. Africa. Three broad collars (girls') and 2 necklets of bead work; necklets of large and small beads, one of scented clay beads, one of ruminants' incisors; hide garter covered with cowrie shells; 2 wire-work armlets with Kruger shilling pendants; " mahogany bean" pod; Abrus precatorius seeds in pods: all S. Africa. Pair of small united pots painted with spiral designs, Predynastic Egyptian, found near Luxor, Egypt; small alabaster pot from a tomb, Luxor; 3 ushabti figures of blue-glazed faience; network of blue faience cylinder beads: all Egypt. Piece of inscribed Buddhistic stone carving; small stone carving of Buddha enshrined: India Cast and gilt metal figure of Buddha, Burma or Lower Siam. Three open-work beads, and carved seated male figure, of soapstone, China; soapstone figure of a monkey, hands to mouth, Chinese or Japanese; oval metal coin, Japan; 5 genuine and 5 counterfeit " cash ", China; oval metal coin, Japan; modern carved wooden ladle, Russia. Presented by Miss G. Verney. Folding iron vegetable cutter and scraper, Purulia, Madras Presidency; steatite bowl, Salem, Madras; cubical worked sandstone block found with ground stone celts, Bellary, N. Madras Presidency. Engraved conch shell from a grave in a stone circle; engraved disk of conch shell with central perforation; pottery bowl, pointed base of black-topped red ware, spirally built, resembling the Predynastic Egyptian ware, roughly engraved after baking; round-based pot of red ware: all from Odugattur, N. Arcot, S. India. Presented by F. J. Richards, I.C.S. Specimens collected by the donor in Aua Island (Durour), Melanesia, viz.: long smooth lime spatula made of swordfish snout bone; needle of turtle-shell to stitch leaf baskets; stout shark-fishing line; aerial roots of a Ficus to make shark lines; uru , woman's girdle of "flax" strings, whipped with coco-nut fibres and dyed black; stems of native "flax"; the same prepared for uru strings; coco-nut fibres prepared for uru making; bark used for dyeing the uru; woman's pubic leaf, cut to lozenge-shape and tucked into the uru. Plaster cast of shank of a large fish-hook, New Zealand. Small, flat, spatulate bone, used as a "pointing bone" to kill by magic (collected by Mrs. D. Bates); quartzite pounding and grinding stone; natural phallic stone used for magical purposes: all S. Australia. A series of pygmy stone implements (mostly of Tardenoisian facies), including small scrapers, gravers, and awls from near Sydney, N. S. Wales, Australia. Presented by Capt. George Pitt-Rivers. Bamboo flea-trap worn uuder the clothing by Chinese, Yangtze Valley, China; wooden spindle with whorl for cotton spinning, Cyprus. Presented by H.L. Dudley Buxton. Two socketed iron adze blades, pen, resembling socketed bronze celts made and still used in Peking, China. Presented by Dr. Davidson Black. Specimens collected by the donor in S. America, 1924-5, viz.: fillet of pith sections threaded on ?palm-leaf ribs; 3 necklets of strung seeds, folded palm-leaf or bark, and of string with pendants of reed sections, beetle elytrae, nutshells, &c.; 2 neck or ear-pendants in the form of miniature pan-pipes; ear-lobe ornament of stick ornamented with yellow feathers, &c.; nose plug of wood with silver trident-like ornament: the above all from the Correguaje tribe, E. Colombia. Two perforated crescentic shell ornaments; elongated pebble (? phallic); small grotesque human figure in pottery; egg- shaped piece of haematite: all from tumuli, ?Chibcha, Bogota plains, Colombia. Full-sized dug-out canoe, painted externally with animal figures, &c., with 2 paddles; native wooden seat; twill-work mat; 2 open-work carrying baskets, large and small; twill-work basket with cover; a sheet of bark-cloth; 2 spiral-grooved bark-cloth mallets; 2 cotton spindles with whorls; carved wooden cassava-mixer; 3 twill-work fans, lozenge-shaped, with handles; bowl cooking-pot; round wooden gold washing-pan; 2 mantas, women's loin-cloths woven in coloured patterns; blue cotton sleeveless jacket or shirt; 2 paint brushes of coco-nut husk for beeswax and hot gum media (used for painting the above-canoe); roughly made imitation of European 4-stringed guitar; xylophone with 24 palm-wood keys, with bamboo resonators beneath: all the above from the Cayapas tribe, Cayapas R., Ecuador. Seventy-nine figures and other objects of pottery, of an ancient culture, dug up at La Tolita, Esmeraldas, NW. Ecuador, comprising more or less realistic human figurines, human heads exhibiting deformation, and ear and nose ornaments; grotesque semi-anthropomorphic figurines and heads; zoomorphic whistles; hollow feet and other fragments of pots; a small jar; part of a zoomorphic grater; painted jar in form of human head; bivalve shell with carved human head; tubular object with grotesque human figure, hand-shaped ?tobacco-pipe: all of pottery. Presented by Major R.H. Thomas, M.C. Seven circular wooden lip-plugs, worn by women of Kagoro, near Jemaa, N. Nigeria. Presented by H.F. Matthews. Specimens collected by the late Admiral Digby, viz.: Bow and 2 long arrows for shooting game, Orinoco River, Venezuela; necklet of Coix lacryma seeds, Jamaica; whip of tree branch, the lash formed of the bark, beaten and twisted, ?W. Indies; boomerang, Australia. Palm-wood carved sword-club, ?Massim district; carved paddle, ?Louisiade Archipelago; pottery bowl: all New Guinea. Large stone-bladed adze; carved wooden hourglass-shaped drum with monitor skin membrane; woman's string-work bag; bau-bau, bamboo tobacco-pipe; 2 armlets of carved coco-nut, and cone shell; necklet of oliva shells; woman's fringed fibre skirt; chief's head-dress of cuscus fur and parrot feathers; ear-pendant spatula of human bone, worn by a chief: all British New Guinea. Two lime-gourds, one with burnt ornament, Trobriand Islands. Palm-wood bow, N. Solomon Islands; broad curved glaive-club, San Cristoval, Solomon Islands. A boar's tusk, and a trochus shell armlet; 10 light arrows (Lepers Island and Eromango); carved two-pronged wooden comb, Tanna: all New Hebrides. Three-headed grotesque human effigy of fibre and clay on coco-nut shell, Malekula Island. Bow and 4 arrows; carved and painted dance-club with long fringes; sheet of patterned bark-cloth; fringed mat-work satchel with in-plaited patterns; valuable breast ornament of tridacna shell overlaid with dentated turtle-shell, with shell-bead necklet; necklet of white shell beads; armlet of shell-beads on fibre-work: all Santa Cruz Group. Fan of plaited palm-leaf streamers: ?Santa Cruz. Carved club and small throwing club; broken spear with two-way barbs; 5 plaited palm-leaf fans with wooden handles; 2 ornamental combs of composite teeth; fly-whisk badge of office: all Samoa Islands. Three-pointed sword edged with shark teeth; large pearl-shell fishing lure; small fish-hook lure of pearl-and turtle-shell with line: all Kingsmill Islands. Woman's fringed skirt of palm-leaf, Marshall Islands. Maori cloak of phormium fibre, with black pendant-strings; piece of Kauri gum for making tatu pigment, &c.: both New Zealand. Carved wooden bowl with pointed legs, S. Pacific (?Santa Cruz). Two orange-cowrie shells once highly valued in the S. Pacific. Wooden sherbet spoon with elaborately fretted flat handle, ?Persia. Flag-shaped palm-leaf fan, with lacquered handle, ?India or Ceylon. Ball-headed throwing club, S. Africa. Two wooden clubs used by natives, Portuguese Penal Settlement, Little Fish R., Angola. Two valves of pearl shell (avicula), S. Pacific. Presented by Mrs. Digby. Ua, wooden club carved With 2 human faces back to back at the grip end, Easter Island. Presented by Sir Montagu Burrows, C.I.E., M.A. Elaborately cast brass box for betel, &c., with chain and spatula, used by wealthier classes: Kandyan work, Ceylon. Collected and presented by Rev. E.V. Freeman, M.A. Small single-stringed musical bow, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides (I878). Small thorn-lined conical fish-trap of calamus palm, Fly River, New Guinea (Rev. J. Chalmers coll.). Presented by J. Edge Partington. Herd-boys' plaited fibre-sling for driving the bulls destined for the ring, Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Presented by Colonel Rafael Ysasi y Ransome. Specimens collected by the donor in the Madras Presidency, S. India, viz.: 2 iron-bladed axes with wooden hafts one inlaid and mounted with brass—shafted in a tenon between metal rings; gauntlet sword, Mahratta type; short thin-bladed ceremonial sword; long-barrelled flint-lock gun with hook-shaped stock; slender bow with 4 annular brass jingles holding pellets; small iron trident, Shiva emblem; ?processional brass emblem shaped like a broad-bladed spear-head with short handle; short club or staff, with curved head silver-mounted at the end; wooden ? beam of a bismar balance; large iron padlock with V-springs and key; pottery jar with coco-nut fibre protective cover; flask of 2 coco-nuts braced together; brass-mounted clasp-knife with pricker; brass lime-box, and one of iron and brass with spatula; iron betel-nut mortar with pestle and spatula; elaborately brass-mounted water-pipe for smoking, with long curved wooden stem, iron pliers, and pricker; globular iron box with lock and suspension hook (? money-box). Presented by F. Fawcett.  Specimens recently collected by the donor from the Polynesian Islands, viz.: large very ancient umete food bowl with human figures carved at the ends, Tubuai Island, Austral Islands; large boat-shaped umete carved at the broad end, made with a stone axe, Gatavake, Gambier Islands. Three wooden bark-cloth mallets; ancient board with chevron designs (probably conventionalized human figures) found in a bog; portion of a similar board; old palm-wood spatula: all Tubuai. Three bark-cloth mallets; a well-made oval wooden dish: both Avera Bay, Rurutu, Austral Islands. Kuku-ro-ara pearl-shell blade for scraping pandanus leaves for plaiting; 4 au curved pearl-shell thatching awls: both Rikitea, Mangareva, Gambier Islands. Kuku-ro-ara shell scraper and au thatching awl, Angakanti; reo, cyproea shell, edged for scraping bread-fruit; au awl; pearl-shell fish-hook shank: all Taravai Island, Gambier Islands. Two au awls, Taku, Gambier Islands. Pearl-shell fish-hook, Atituita; rei, sperm whale tooth worn on the breast as symbol of authority: both Mangareva, Gambier Islands. Some 90 objects of stone and coral including adze-blades ground and unground, some tanged, one imitating a European axe-blade; chisels; food pounders, some of coral; smoothing and rubbing stones for mat-making, &c.; scrapers; fishing weights, &c., from Pitcairn, Austral, and Gambier Islands. Presented by W. Scoresby Routledge, M.A. Pair of stilts used by boys, Marquesas Islands. Presented by J. Hornell. Small basket bag of rush-work made with a knotless technique, White Nile, Kordofan. Obtained in Khartoum and presented by Mrs. J.W. Crowfoot. Six ground Early Dynastic stone celts, Dabod, Upper Nubia; rough crescentic stone pot-borer of flint (V-VI dynasty), Saqqara, Egypt; fragments of stone dishes (I, II dynasties), Abydos, Egypt; broken grinding palette, lozenge-shaped, Pre-Dynastic, small black-topped vase, and decorated pot, Pre- and Early-Dynastic: all Upper Nubia. Potsherd of painted vessel, XVIIIth dynasty, Tel-el-Amarna, Egypt; baby's quilted cap with " sequins " and a blue protective bead against the evil-eye, Egypt or Palestine. Presented by E.S. Thomas, M.A. Collection of 16 "pygmy" flint implements (Tardenoisian types) found together, Dean Clough, near Marsden, Yorks. Presented by Capt. F. Buckley. Facetted grey stone celt dredged from the Offin River, Ashanti. Two small ground stone celts, a hammerstone un-earthed while road-making, and a smooth thin pebble found with stone implements: all Obuassi, Ashanti. Natural spoon-shaped pebble, Secondi Beach, Gold Coast; lump of iron bloom from an ancient furnace, Akrokerri, Ashanti. Presented by Capt. R.P. Wild. A collection of flint flakes and implements found by the donor on Neolithic Occupation sites at Les Mielles, St. Ouen Bay, Jersey, comprising end-scrapers of different types, and a ?borer. Presented by E.F. Bosanquet. Iron-bowled tobacco-pipe with long iron stem, Gennan Kamerun (1914-15), 3 pottery pipe-bowls of much conventionalized anthropomorphic shape, ?Brazil, S. America. Chinese and Burmese pipes (collected by Col. A.W.S. Wingate (1898-9) on a journey from Hankow, China, to Bhamo, Burma, 1898-9), Viz.: pipe with bamboo stem and bowl; 4 pipes of bamboo root, 2 with long stems and metal-mounted bowls, one with separate bamboo stem and imitation jade ball mouthpiece; 2 wooden pipes cut from the solid. Pipe with small poytery or stone bowl and long bamboo stem, ?Burmese. Two small metal-bowled pipes with long stems; one cast brass pipe-bowl; a decorated bowl of glazed grey pottery with buffalo head design. Presented by C.S. Bompas.  Conical fish-trap buan suah of calamus rachides, Suai; basket of plaited grass, the sides in chequer the bottom in 'mad weaving' (sarah), Sebuti; house basket of grass entirely in sarah; all Sarawak. Presented by J.C. Swayne. Game trap comprising a wheel-shaped spiked foot-fall to place over a hole in the ground, with a noose over it attached to a log; 7 small foot-falls, and 5 stout raw-hide nooses used with the larger traps: all Konkomba, N. Territory, Gold Coast. Presented by the Commissioner for the Gold Coast Section, Empire Exhibition, Wembley (Lady Guggisberg). Figure of harvest goddess, of plaited rice stalks or palm-leaf strip, with eyes and nose of old Chinese kapeng coins; Bali Island, Malay Archipelago. Collected and presented by E.J. Horniman. Plaster cast of a hole made in chalk with a deer-antler tool. Blackpatch Hill flint-pit, Patching, Sussex (1922). Presented by Dr. Eliot Curwen, M.A., M.B., F.S.A. Chinese double membrane drum with dragon, &c., paintings; Manchu composite bow. Collected by Col. E.L. Hill, presented by Miss Hill. Fish-trap of halfa grass made by a Sengalese soldier at Menaa, Aures Mts., Algeria. Obtained at Mechounech Oasis and presented by Capt. M.W. Hilton-Simpson, B.Sc. Twenty-nine sherds of pottery, Hallstatt type, excavated at All Cannings Cross, Wilts., by Mr. and Mrs. Cunnington. Presented by Mrs. Cunnington. Stone implements from Griqualand West exhibited at the Empire Exhibition, Wembley, 1924, viz.: twenty-four specimens of Lower Palaeolithic types from Kimberley, Newlands, and the Vaal R.; a circular implement flaked on one surface and edge trimmed, Alexandersfontein; 5 quartzite implements of the same age-type, from Vryberg, British Bechuanaland, and from Cape Province. Presented by the Macgreggor Museum, Kimberley, S. Africa. Ancient wooden spade "shod" with iron round the cutting edges, found in Bramall Hall; probably from Cheshire. Presented by Capt. T.N.C. Nevill. Series of flint implements of Middle Palaeolithic types, excavated by F. Turville Petre in hills bordering Genesareth, W. Lake of Galilee, 1925, comprising Moustierian points, end-scrapers, unaltered flakes, " coups de poing ", of the Lower or Early Middle Palaeolithic, discoidals, and flakes exhibiting retouching. Presented by the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. Fine old carved sundial staff, gnomon peg missing, Darjiling. Presented by Lady Westland. Specimens illustrating the manufacture of D-shaped gun-flints, from early gun-flint factory sites in S. Wilts. Presented by Dr. L.C.C. Clay.

A very fine flint-knife ripple-flaked over one face, the other ground, Pre- or Proto-Dynastic, Egypt; large lozenge-shaped spear-head of chert, Honduras; 32 flint implements collected by the late W.J. Knowles in counties Antrim, Derry, and Down, N. Ireland, comprising concave scrapers, saws, arrow-heads and drills (Fenton). Magic pointing-stick to cause death, Gnamo tribe, Nullagine district, W. Australia (E. Clement). Two Malay krises with carved … wooden she.. Malay kris with carved bone grip and sheath mounted with brass and turtle-shell; a small Malay kris with carved bone grip and buffalo horn and bone sheath. Two globular wooden temple gongs, mu yu, one large and lacquered, and a large round tabular bronze gong ornamented with frogs in full relief, China; small rectangular box with grotesque relief carving of a human figure on the lid (?for holding the bone heads of tatu instruments), Maori, New Zealand; wooden drinking vessel carved to imitate a red buffalo horn, with lizard figures carved in relief and various intaglio designs, Bushongo, Congo State; very fine large round wooden yangona bowl with fibre cord, Fiji Islands. Elephant spear with weighted wooden shaft, WaGogo (between Tanganyika and coast); spear with point of giraffe bone, Upper Nile, Dinka; doll with head of wild goose mandible, dressed in reindeer skin, Tungus, Siberia; Kayan parang-ilang or manda, with carved bone and antler mounts on grip, and scabbard with hair and bead fringes, and an embossed brass gong, Sarawak, Borneo; 3 carved wooden clubs, Fiji Islands (Stevens). Rough flint celt, flaked out but not finished, Neolithic type, picked up on the surface at Mapledulham, Oxon. (The finder). Pair of small flint-lock pistols with unscrewing barrels; pair of percussion-cap pistols, English (F.H. Bennett). Large armlet of elephant tusk, ?Nuer, Garre R., S. Sudan (collected by E.H. Jessen, 1904); wooden case inlaid with brass nails, lead, and beetle elytra, with 8 cartouches, bullet flask, &c., ? Burma or Shan States. Horseman's iron anklet with fixed 4-pointed spur, and ring-handled dagger with fine-pointed broad blade, N. Nigeria (Webster). Three carved wooden paddles, Sarawak; steel lance-head or arrow elaborately chiselled out with tiger and dragon designs, Japan; pair of wooden ear-plugs with copper-work overlay, Swazi, S. Africa; very long Maori hani, New Zealand; small brass-mounted powder horn with spring valve, India; carved bamboo lime-box with gourd stopper (Graham). Specimens collected by the Rev. P.E. and Mrs. Class in S. America, viz.: painted pottery, figure of sky-god; flask of painted pottery in human male and female shape; 3 flat round-headed pins of copper or bronze (Pre-Inca): all excavated near Tiahuanaco, N. Bolivia. Poncho, shirt, of painted bark-cloth with slits for head and arms, U. Amazon, towards Bolivia; poncho of woven wool patterned by " stopping out " dyeing process, Mapuche Indians, Araucania, Chili. Four small silver pendants in human conventionalized form, pichi che ("little people"); pair of semicircular and of very large rectangular silver ear-rings; silver pendant of tubes with plaque embossed with a face, and hand-like pendants; very large silver pin with globular head, to fasten a cloak; small silver cloak-pin with long pendant of engraved silver plaques on chain, with cruciform terminal; ornamental chain of black and white horse-hair; 2 finger-rings of horse-hair: all Araucanian, Chili. Woollen knitted cap with human and bovine figures worked in black and brown; knitted purse worked with human and bird figures; 2 "flower sprays" of feathers worn at an annual festival: all Aymara, Bolivia. Two ground stone axes, 15 broken knife- or spear-blades of quartz, and 42 unfinished or broken stone arrow-heads, Tehuelche; long hammerstone; rough partly flaked stone, probably an anvil stone; 3 ground stone blades with worn edges ? for cleaning skins; 4 agate "grattoir" scrapers; grooved stone ball (a very large and fine bola perdida); 5 well-, and one roughly made bola; a sub-spherical hammer: all from ancient sites, Chubut R., Trelew, Patagonia. Two flat oval anvil stones, Port Madryn, Patagonia. Two flat almost round and one hemispherical ? mace-head, pierced for hafting: ancient Araucanian, Chili. Stringwork bag, brown patterned on white, with carrying cords, Gran Chaco Indians, Paraguay. Two rectangular pottery jars decorated with moulded figures of the "weeping god", &c., possibly dug up near Tiahuanaco, Bolivia (Mrs. Class). Specimens purchased from the Kenya Section, Wembley, at the close of the Empire Exhibition, viz.: round bowls of soft stone, oiled and smoked, and a specimen of the stone; apparatus including ketati chain link tray, prickers to hold links, and pliers for squeezing the links, ngolia, used in chain making from wire, with a 16-ft. brass chain triangular in section, so made; short chains of brass and copper; a fine chain of iron wire; a necklet, ukumu, of tin wire rings joined by fine chains, Kitui; 2 massive tin neck rings, ipulu, Kitui; armlet, lukoso, of hippopotamus ivory, Bungale; armlet of elephant hoof rings, worn and prized by successful elephant hunters; neck pendant of hard wood with copper rivets, on a fine iron chain; 2 kebuo ornaments of conus shell disks from the coast; 2 pairs of tin earrings, ibuli; copper ring, ebuli, on a fine looped iron chain worn over the ear; 2 large tin ear-studs; brass finger-ring, ngome, protective from sword cuts, Kitui; depilating forceps, ngose, for eyelashes, worn also as ornament; snuff flask, keangi, of bone and ebony, with brush for taking snuff; small bow, uta, resembling the Bushman bow; woman's spatulate digging stick, mwo; iron-bladed barbed elephant spear with weighted butt; iron-bladed woodman's axe, ithoka-ya-nguu, tanged into club-like haft; smith's bellows; a skin bag with wooden nozzle; low round three-legged stool, mumbo, for old men: inlaid with brass and copper wire; 2 modern round stone bowls; musical bow, mbebe, with drum-topped gourd resonator, played with a simple fiddle bow; side-blast trumpet of kudu horn: all Akamba tribe. Pair of gold ear-disks, kuti and of silver, majasi; nose-stud, kishehashi, made of an American dollar piece: all Lamu, Coast district. Twowooden snuff-boxes on long neck chains, Akikuyu; iron finger-ring with knife-blade, for fighting, ? Suk tribe; painted hide shield, Masai; ceremonial spear with long blade socketed on an ebony shaft with thickened bone and ebony butt, and an iron-pointed staff of similar type: both ? Akamba. Wooden recurved bow of Somali type; iron ladle with bowl at each end-; long wooden drinking tube with end-filter, with hollowed staff-case. The whole collection from British E. Africa.

Bronze celt, flanged and double looped, as taken from the bivalve mould, N. Portugal; bronze double-looped socketed celt, C. Portugal; subrectangular pottery plaque pierced at each rounded corner (? an archer's wrist guard) from a Bronze Age hut site, Alembejo, Portugal (L C. G. Clarke, Museum of Archaeology, Cambridge). Primitive wooden fish-hook of one piece, Sandtrack, Vesterbotten, N. Sweden; Ancient Peruvian quipu from a grave, and a finely plaited sling, slit for the stone, Pachacamac, Peru; hand fire-drill with grooved trefoil-like hearth-block, Parintintin, Rio Madeira, Brazil; toy arrow of palm-leaf rib, " feathered " with the leaf, Guarayu tribe, Bolivia; wooden knife for fish preparing and fruit cutting, Choroti and Ashluslay, Gran Chaco, Paraguay; spatulate saw and scraper of hard wood with serrated edge, and hook of a tree branch bend, for high grass, Ashluslay. Small wooden club to kill fish; bone awl to extract burrowing sand fleas, niguas, from the flesh; 2 bone prickers primarily for bleeding; toy bolas with wooden weights and long string; set of 4 gaming sticks, used as dice; wooden needle and cord for carrying fish: all Choroti, Paraguay. Modern sling of plaited wool with looped cord, slit for the stone, Quicha, Bolivia. Primitive reed clarinet with 4 stops and bell mouth of gourd, Goajiro tribe, N. Colombia (Baron E. Nordenskiold, The Museum, Goteborg, Sweden).

Specimens from various tribes in the Naga Hills, Assam, viz.: ancient iron brass-mounted dao, an heirloom; girl's bamboo tobacco pipe with pottery bowl; woman's iron-bowled pipe; wooden pipe used by both sexes; bundle of some 100 iron currency units, chabili; pair of man's brass dancing anklets with rattling pellets inside made by cire perdue process; 4 blackened pointed wooden ear ornaments; woman's necklet of trade beads with bone spacers and shell pendant; wooden dao holder of Sema type; rich woman's cloth, aowaso; fringed cloth for both sexes; woman's plaid cloth; 3 men's cloths, kizesu; rich girl's cloth; cloth of a man who has done mithan sacrifice; cloth of a man who has taken heads but not done mithan sacrifice; cloth made for sale to Phoms and Konyaks; rich woman's shirt; woven bag used by both sexes; man's bag; red cloth ceremonial hat of a putir, priest, with boar tusk ornament and spikes for hornbill feathers; 4 spears (2 warriors' and one used by old men) ornamented with dyed hair overlay and long hair fringes: all Ao Naga. A dao; 2 spatulae for eating rice (one with straining slits); small food-carrying basket; bride's basket for carrying her possessions from home; 2 round, sectioned dishes on tripod for curry, &c.; 5 triangular wooden festival ornaments for shields; pair of rich bride's marriage-day ear pendants of long dyed hair and cowries; rich wife's skirt; rich man's cloth; 2 fringe ornaments of dyed hair for rich man's cloth; wooden spear-head to avert spirits from a house; dog's jaw-bone for similar purpose, 2 spears ornamented as above, one formerly used only by the very rich: all Sema Naga. Thre daos, one with hair fringe; wooden stool carved with horn-bills in relief used only by the hereditary priest-chief; brass crescent worn on man's hat; carved wooden horned human head with hair fringe, worn by warriors; carved figure of man with dao carrying a head, 2 gibbons carved below, worn on warrior's chest, symbolizing success in head-hunting; leaf-shaped chank-shell pendants of brass with human heads in relief; pair of woman's large ear pendants of brass spirals with bead and bell pendants; rich man's woven bag; tassel bag with pellet bells, of the Ang clan; common bag; 2 primitive clarinets of bamboo with 2 stops and slit " reed "; 3 spears, one ornamented as above, one of trident form (a smith's tour de force) and one entirely of iron: all Konyak Naga. Axe-shaped dao; wooden dao carrier; conical fish-catcher (scoop) of bamboo and thorny calamus for catching stupefied fish after poisoning a stream; wooden rice-spreading ladle to ferment it for modhu; fish creel with detachable funnel; warrior's necklet of trade beads and tiger-tooth pendants, and one with brass beads and a boar's tusk behind; round salt cake as supplied to Semas for trading; woman's puttees of webbing; cloth of rich man who has taken heads; man's cloth; man's hat of red and yellow cane with red goat hair and horn ornament; 3 bamboo "jews’ harps "; natural holed luck-stone, tied to a quiver: all Sangtam Naga. Gun arrow used in the Rising of 1918; old poisoned iron arrow-head; 2 bird traps with bamboo springs; tasselled head ornament worn by a "headtaker"; spear with plain shaft used in the 1918 Rising: all Thado Kuki and Kuki Naga. Cross-bow quiver with war arrows; double-bowled pottery pipe; wooden food-dish with pedestal and handle; warrior's wristlet of cane strips with coix seed overlay; 2 women's skirts and a man's cloth, worn by the South Sangtam Naga; 2 bags used by men: all Kalyo-Kengyu Naga. Boy's bullet-bow; 4 perches for liming birds; small wicker cage for decoy-birds; drinking horn of very large water buffalo; 3 wooden drinking mugs with loop handles; 2 pairs of man's grass wristlets, one stiffened with rods; pair of man's armlets of spathe with grass-work and yellow orchid-stem overlay; pair of plaited grass-work leggings; man's waist tassel; 2 wooden holders for cowries while being ground; woman's necklet of carnelian, shell, and beads, with bone spacers; miniature loom for teaching little girls; toy imitation mithan buffalo skull made of cock's skull and spurs; 2 men's belts; fringed baldrick of webbing; woman's breast cloth; man's cloth; cloth for both sexes; woman's skirt; man's kilt; 5 spears, 3 ornamented as above, one with plain staff, and one with 4 pairs of long hornlike-barbs below blade: all Angami Naga. Two wooden spatulae for modhu; spoon for eating rice; pottery food-dish; rich woman's waist girdle of beads and cowries; pouch made of bull's scrotum; tasselled cotton dao belt; man's cloth; girl's skirt; 3 women's skirts; old bearskin helmet: all Rengma Naga. Wooden tobacco-box; man's bamboo composite comb; man's double solid wooden comb; round food-dish with 4 feet, of one piece of wood: all Kacha Naga. Wooden tobacco pipe; a plano-convex disk of brass (currency), very rare; similar smaller disk worn by a girl on the corner of her cloth over shoulder; pair of spiked brass armlets (cire perdue process); rich man's cloth; small cloth; strip of cloth with linear human figures in coix seeds; old woman's head-band worn in the sun; man's hat of three-coloured cane work; spear ornamented as above, ? made by Kalyo Kengyu: all Chang Naga. Wooden pipe with tiger relief carved on stem, Phom Naga. Small bag, Lhota Naga. 41 stone celts from various districts. A collection of Ancient Egyptian objects, viz.: 2 flint knives ground on one side, the other flaked, and a forked ceremonial flint knife-blade (Pre-Dynastic); 2 flint knives with tang-handles; a flint hoe blade; perforated black stone mace head; amulet of two fingers carved in obsidian; large facetted stone gaming die with engraved Greek letters on the facets (? Coptic). Lent by J.P. Mills, M.A., I.C.S. Specimens from Ancient Bolivia, S. America, viz.: two partly ground stone axe-blades, Waraya tribe; a ground. T-shaped stone and a copper axe-blade, Aymara and Inca respectively. Lent by A. Chivers.


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