Report of the Curator of the Pitt-Rivers Museum, 1909
During the year 1909 the former “duplicate-room” has been equipped for exhibition of specimens, so that it will form part of the Museum itself. Wall-cases, table-cases, and drawer-cabinets have been erected in this room, and it is proposed to devote the exhibition space thus acquired to a series illustrating Primitive Lighting-appliances, the existing collection of which will be greatly increased. This will eventually release for other purposes one of the exhibition cases in the Museum Court. The duplicate and other non-exhibited specimens formerly stored in this room have been transferred to the new store room, which is gradually being equipped for storage purposes, and also to serve as a convenient sorting and labelling room. In the Upper Gallery a case has been added containing Norwegian cross-bows of a very primitive and interesting type. The interest of this form of cross-bow lies in the light which it throws upon the origin of the West African forms of this weapon, which have hitherto puzzled ethnologists. I have published a short monograph upon this subject in the African Society’s Journal, 1909. The collection illustrating the implements of the Upper Palaeolithic periods (“cave” periods) has been rearranged and added to, rendering it more efficient as a teaching series. Similar work is being done in connexion with the Lower Palaeolithic periods, involving a redistribution of the exhibited and non-exhibited material. Miss B. Freire Marreco has very kindly continued her card catalogue of the Magic series, which is approaching completion. She has received valuable help from three Japanese students, temporarily resident in Oxford - Mr Yoshimune Yasugi, Mr S. Uchigasaki and Miss Mitani, whose kind assistance I gratefully acknowledge.

I have to record the death, in March, 1909, of E.F. Bayzand, whom I had employed as an assistant since July, 1905. The work of the department was considerably hampered through his loss. In December I appointed George Kettle to fill his vacancy.

I have given courses of lectures in the Museum to the students for the diploma in Anthropology throughout the year; and gave a special course of lectures to probationers for the Soudan Civil Service during Hilary and Easter Terms.

Amongst the numerous accessions the following are of especial interest—the collection of native appliances and ornaments from the Naga Hills, N.E. India, given by Dr. E.T. Wilson. These were collected by the late Colonel R.G. Woodthorpe, one of the pioneers in the Ethnography of the region; the collection made by the late Admiral J.P. Maclear, chiefly during the expedition of H.M.S. Challenger, given by Mrs. Maclear; a fine series of objects collected by Sir Everard im Thurn, K.C.M.G., in the Pacific, including some interesting figures from the New Hebrides, a very fine Fijian kava bowl, &c.; a series of interesting objects principally from Burma and the Shan States, collected by Mr. H.E. Leveson, of the Burma Civil Service; and some fine ancient Egyptian knives of chert, given by Mr. F. Legge.

Very fine ivory statuette of native chief on horseback, and a rod or sceptre of cast bronze, Benin, Nigeria. Presented by H.N. Thompson, Esq., Conservator of Forests, Southern Nigeria. Carved wood figure of a gemsbok, Kama's Country, S. Africa. Presented by P.M. Clark, Esq., Victoria Falls, Rhodesia. Fishing-kite of leaves, shell bar worn through the nasal septum, wooden hair-comb, carved lime-spatula, armlets of trochus-shell, coconut-shell and plaited fibre, cup of coconut-shell and a fishing-net, Dobu, d'Entrecasteaux Group, New Guinea; baker's notched tally-stick, St. Jacut-de-la-mer, near St. Malo, Brittany. Presented by D. Jenness, Esq., Balliol College, Oxford. Palaeolithic whistle made from phalanx bone of reindeer, Laugerie Basse, Dordogne, France; " pigmy " flint implement, Yorkshire; portion of flint implement with partial grinding or polishing, Thames at Wallingford; Masai snuff-box of horn, German E. Africa; naturally perforated pebble used as a cattle-charm, Craigs, Co. Antrim, Ireland; mole's foot used as a charm against cramp, Sussex; " cramp-nut " carried as charm against cramp, Sussex; charm-ring, ?Persia; primitive wooden whaling cross-bow with arrow and drawing-lever, Skogsvaag, W. coast of Norway; borer, 20 scrapers, and 3 other Neolithic implements of flint, Windmill Hill, near Avebury, Wilts.; stone spindle-whorl, Aberdeen; " eye of Santa Lucia," an operculum of a shell worn as charm against the evil eye, Chioggia, Venice; 3 dried sea-horses tied together and worn as a charm, Italy. Presented by H. Balfour, Esq., M.A., Curator of the Museum. Figure of Buddha made from clay containing ashes of a lama, Ladakh. Presented by Turner Henderson, Esq., Studley Priory, Oxford. Old notice-board warning trespassers against spring-guns and man-traps, from the Hermitage grounds, Deddington, Oxon. Presented by G. Coggins, Esq., The Hermitage, Deddington.  Flint flake partially ground and phragmacone of a belemnite, Wood Farm, Tackley, Oxon. Presented by W. Evetts, Esq., Tackley Park, Oxon. Old-fashioned " breast-plough," Exmoor, Devonshire. Presented by W.R. Halliday, Esq., B.A., New College, Oxford. Four Palaeolithic implements, Weydon Hill, Farnham, Surrey. Presented by Rev. C.H. Keable, Wrecclesham Vicarage, Farnham. Four toy skip-jacks for sailing over the desert, Assouan, Egypt; ancient Egyptian wooden head-rest, and a modern ditto from the White Nile; sling, Upper Egypt. Presented by Dr. G.B. Longstaff, M.D., "Highlands," Putney Heath, S.W. Pieces of animal bones found near Hindu shrine at Budrinath in the Himalayas. These are kept by Hindus, and valued as charms and as medicine. Presented by Sir William Markby, D.C.L., K.C.I E., Headington Hill, Oxford. Specimens collected by the late Colonel R.G. Woodthorpe in the Naga Hills, N.E. India, viz. iron-bladed axe, ceremonial wooden axe, 3 dao or chopping-swords, cross-bow, 2, bamboo quivers with arrows, 12 arrows, axe handle, 2 cane-work helmets, defensive belt of spathe, Sehmah warrior's ornament of wood, shells and hair, Angami ornament worn as a sign of great bravery, 3 cowrie-covered aprons worn by men, Angami waist-cloth or kilt, sleeveless jacket, 4 cloth loin-cloths, 2 Jaipur Naga women's loin-belts, Eastern Naga ditto with bells, 3 men's loin-cloths, shoulder-belt, peculiar wooden tail with hair fringes worn by Sehmah warriors, 2 ornamental belts, embroidered satchel, cloth-covered bamboo pig-tail worn by women, 2 open-work bead-work collars, necklet of large white-shell pieces, ornaments of white shell, string-work collar with shell discs, 5 necklets of large rough beads of white shell, 9 various necklets of trade beads, seeds, &c., armlets of various designs, leaden torque, bone hair-pins, 2 bamboo hair-combs, 2 boar's-tusk ear-pendants, ear-ornaments of various kinds, horn ornaments for attaching to helmets, Borduaria women's coronets of dyed cane-work, brass crescentic pendant, thin silver plaque, long belt of dyed hair, bamboo tobacco box, metal pipe, 2 pottery pipe-bowls, basket-covered gourd, knapsack of spathe, women's carrying- straps, fiddle, drum-rattle, sistrum and clapper made from two tortoise carapaces; also polo ball of wood, Assam; 2 Chinese pipe-bowls; model of a carrying-chair, Assam; harpoon arrow, Andaman Islands; 2 assegais, S. Africa. Presented by Dr. E.T. Wilson, M.B., F.R.C.P., Westal, Montpellier Parade, Cheltenham. Four varieties of obsolete Sussex hop-tallies of metal. Presented by W. Ruskin Butterfield, Esq., Corporation Museum, Hastings. Maori cloak, New Zealand. Presented by Mrs. Melville Lee, Oxford. Home-made iron scraper for scraping dough, and an ancient bronze key, Chelmsford. Presented by Rev. A. Clark, M.A., Great Leigh Rectory, Chelmsford. Cap of hammered bark, Jamaica; bronze duct for collecting maple-sugar from the trees, Canada. Presented by A.W. Comber, Esq., M.B., 7 St. Margaret's Road, Oxford. Carved wood head of hornbill, New Britain; bamboo fish- trap, wicker rat-trap, and top, from the Belgian Congo. Presented by W.L. Hildburgh, Esq., St. Ermin's Mansions, London, S.W. Carved wooden box, Benin, Nigeria; fighting-club and basket-pouch, S. Australia. Presented by Mrs. H. K. Eden, Hill-brow, Rugby.  Fourteen bronze figures of Hindu deities; 2 lac figures of Buddba, Burma; linga-yoni of crystal and one of plaster, yoni of copper, India; 25 ancient (? Bactrian) beads of rare types in agate, Benares; long narrow bead of agate, Benares; snuff- box made from a jade pebble, Kashgar; carved ivory dha handle, Burma; 2 small stone adze-blades, Burma; ground stone celt, Bundelkand, India; ditto, Banda, Allahabad; cast of ditto, Coorg; 3 rough laterite palaeoliths, Madras; square of clear crystal carved in 10-pointed star pattern, ?India; similar object in white plaster, ?Tibet. Presented by Mrs. W. Theobald. Stone bored by marine animals and used as a net-sinker, Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, Northumberland; 11 worked flint implements, 3 cores, flakes, and potsherds, from a neolithic fond-de-cabane, Momelle, Hesbaye Plateau, Belgium. Presented by A.M. Bell, Esq., M.A., Rawlinson Road, Oxford. Ikoro, wooden model of a quiver, hung in a house to bring luck in hunting, Ainu, Piratori village, Yezo; 3 Ainu iku bashui or moustache-lifters, Yezo; head of whistling-arrow, Japan. Presented by Dr. N. Gordon Munro, 91 Bluff, Yokohama, Japan. Bull-roarer, Ashdown Forest, Sussex. Presented by Mr. S. Fenton, Cranbourne Street, London, W.C. Palate of piriracu fish used as a rasp, Amazon River, Brazil. Presented by Capt. A.W. Craig, R.N., H.M.S. Pelorus. Bunch of charms worn by small girls in Bologna, Italy; wooden cross with twig of olive taken from a church on Palm Sunday; these are set up in fields to keep them fertile, Pracchia, Bolognese Apennines, Italy. Presented by Miss B. Freire Marreco, Potter's Croft, Horsell, Surrey  Krat pusat, bamboo knife for cutting the umbilical cord of girl children, Larut, Perak, Straits Settlements; sepit surat clamp used in circumcision, Pekan, Pahang; tali agas rattan loop used by women in child-birth, Larut, Perak. Presented by Leonard Wray, Esq., The Laurels, Grayshott, Surrey. Finely-worked crescentic knife of chert, very fine IInd dynasty chert knife with tang, large chert knife of rougher make, shell armlet, VIth dynasty alabaster vase, globular stone vase of XIIth dynasty, stone head-rest of VIth dynasty, pottery vessel and ivory comb of XVIIIth dynasty, ivory figurine and bronze bucket of XIXth-XXIIIrd dynasties, circular bowl of pottery found inverted over the stomach of an interred body, from Excavations at Abydos, Egypt. Presented by F. Legge, Esq., F.S.A., 6 Gray's Inn Square, London, W.C. Crescentic chert knife, rougher chert knife, 3 flakes worked at the ends, 2 bronze axe-blades and a crescentic glaive-blade of thin bronze, Abydos, Egypt. Presented by W.L. Nash, Esq., F.S.A., Secretary to the Society of Biblical Archaeology. Head-rest of solid wood, VIth dynasty, Abydos. Presented by Rev. W. MacGregor, J.P., F.S.A. Collection of objects procured by the late Admiral J.P. Maclear during the expedition of H.M.S. Challenger and subsequently, viz. 2 clubs, 3 spear-throwers, 3 boomerangs, and 3 spears, Northern Australia; 3 obsidian-headed lances, 3 very small ditto, obsidian-bladed dagger, spear-head cut down to form a dagger, adze with shell blade, ditto with iron blade, lime-gourd, belt of plaited fibre, paddle, friction-fire-stick, Admiralty Islands; carved paddle, bow, stone-bladed axe, stone-bladed sago-adze, 3 hair-combs, Humboldt Bay, New Guinea; two-pointed spear, bamboo-bladed arrow, 4 other arrows, stone-bladed adze and axe, 2 stone axe-blades, 4 sling- stones, 2 daggers of cassowary bone, 2 bone spatulate instruments, 2 lime-gourds, 3 necklets, dog's-teeth pendant, 2 plaited armlets, 2 cassowary-feather coronets, 2 string-work bags, 2 fringe-petticoats, British New Guinea; 2 bamboo bows, 3 carved arrows, 2 decorated pipes of bamboo, very fine carved drum, Torres Straits, New Guinea; bow and canna-leaf arrows, ? Kei Islands; bow, arrows, and 2 necklets of native beads, New Hebrides; 2 clubs, 2 sperm-whale teeth given as tribute, 5 wooden bowls, Fiji Islands; hair-comb, Samoa; 3 necklets of coconut-shell beads, Caroline Islands; 2 model outrigger boats, 3 spoons with coconut-shell bowls, pair of clogs, 5 hand-made pots, placuna-shells for window-glazing, Manila, Philippines; 2 bone spear-heads and 2 glass-bladed arrows, Fuegian, Straits of Magellan; 3 gourd cups, Brazil; model of coast raft, China; 2 long bows, toy bow, and iron-headed arrows, Japan. Presented by Mrs. J.P. Maclear, Observatory House, Slough. Specimens from Japan, viz. model quern, rice-husking mortar, &c., Osaka; pair of small shears; shell drinking cup from Miyajima, lacquered cup for offerings (Shinto), Nikko; rosary, Kyoto; 2 fox images from the Fox temple, Tokyo; fish-skin lantern, Enoshima; large paper figure of carp suspended at the Boys' Festival, Tokyo; straw sandals, Nikko; straw horse-sandals, Hakone; a number of maps, prints, &c., from Japanese temples. Specimens from China, viz. domino-cards, Canton; brass spoon, ladle, strainer, scissors, clothes-hook, bamboo cup, padlock, 2 pigeon-whistles, musical pipe, fiddle and bow, 9 carved models of water-wheel, boats, &c., silver symbolic padlock worn by a child to prevent its spirit being stolen by evil spirits, Shanghai; 2 horn cages for singing crickets, Nankin; woman's imitation chignon, Chang Chow, Fokien; small pellet-drum and necklet of carved bone and enamel-work, Peking; model of bridal palanquin, model of ordinary palanquin, set of 9 lucky figures in silver-gilt worn on children's caps, and New-year's-day mask, Canton; strings of paper money and models of "shoes of sycee " in paper for burning at funerals, pair of small leather boots, China; 2 Chinese roller pictures of gods obtained at Saigon, Lower Cochin China. Presented by Miss E. C. Bell, 139 Gloucester Road, London, S.W. Carved shield, Murchison District, W. Australia; stone-headed axe-hammer, quartz-edged knife,and wooden throwing- club, Swan River tribe, W. Australia. Presented by Mrs. Daisy Bates, Karra Katta Club, Perth, W. Australia. Tufts of dingo hair and perameles tail worn in the hair by native women, W. Australia. Presented by Rev. E.H. Goddard, M.A., Clyffe-Pypard Vicarage, Wootton Bassett, Wilts. Four carved wood human figures, Ba-Luba, Lualaba River, Congo State. Presented by S.A. Neave, Esq., M.A., Mill Green Park, Ingatestone, Essex. Wicker shield, Guadalcanar, Solomon Islands; 2 kawas or throwing-clubs of stone, bark belt, New Hebrides; full-sized figure with head formed with a human skull, set up as a memorial to a dead person, 2 large grotesque heads of tree-fern stem and clay, smaller ditto mounted with spider's web, and 3 skulls with features reproduced in clay, Malekula, New Hebrides; 2 mat-work carrying bags, Pentecost Island, New Hebrides; fish-skin helmet and sharks' teeth weapon, Gilbert Islands; 2 large fishing hooks, ? Ellice Islands; very fine, large kava-bowl, 3 ft. 4.1/2 in. in diameter, 8 wooden food dishes, 5 wooden head-rests, bamboo nose-flute, wig made of grass-stalks, Fiji Islands. Presented by Sir Everard im Thurn, K.C.M.G., Governor of Fiji and High Commissioner of the Western Pacific. Three modern Egyptian charm-cases of leather; modern leathern purse and perforated pebble worn as a charm to cure pains in the neck, Egypt; set of white-metal toe-rings, N.W.P., India. Presented by Miss Murray, University College, London. Wooden tumbler-lock, Nubia. Presented by A.M. Blackman, Esq., The Vicarage, Stokenchurch, Wallingford. Bar of salt used as currency in Abyssinia. Presented by Capt. R.L. Waller, R.E. Fu-i or presentation sceptre set with carved jade and a water-pipe, Peking, China; decorated shoulder-bag, wooden powder flask, horn marling-spike, depilating-tweezers, and 2 stone celts kept as lucky stones, Kachin Chingpaw, Bhamo, Burma; coloured cloth, turban-cloth, cloth belt with bell, 4 pairs of glass ear-studs, 6 pairs of silver ear-pendants, pair of heavy silver armlets, and embossed silver plaque sewn on to children's caps, Namhkam Shans, Bhamo; decorated shoulder-bag, Shans of Ngwedaung, E. Karenni; neck-ornament of coiled brass wire, the wearing of which involves extreme elongation of the neck, Padaung women, E. Karenni; pair of spiral brass garters worn by Karenni women, Loikaw; 2 Karenni powder-flasks of bamboo, pipe-bowl of wood, and case of lacquered cane-work containing stones valued as charms, Loikaw; pair of deep silver bracelets, small silver- mounted powder-flask, betel-nut mortar, Kaw pipe and Kwi pipe, Kengtung, S. Shan States; pair of silver bracelets, Taungthus, S. Shan States; necklet of large silver beads, Padaung Gaungto, Shan States; betel-nut mortar, Mong Nai, S. Shan States; Padaung pipe, Tawng Peng, N. Shan States. Presented by H. E. Leveson, Esq., Burmese Civil Service, Rangoon. Four models of obsolete gardener's-tallies, Buckinghamshire, and 2 glass sea-horses, formerly used as charms, Venice. Presented by E. Lovett, Esq., 41 Outram Road, Croydon. Three ground stone axes, 10 stone arrow-heads, 10 other implements of obsidian, &c., and fragment of early pottery, Kamikawa Valley, Hokkaido, Japan. Presented by Y. Shioda, the Kamikawa Middle School, Hokkaido, Japan. Malay execution kris, Sklat sabre, Murut parang, Malay agricultural chopper, Milano sword, parang-pedang and Milano sadap or angular sword, Sarawak; Kenyah parang-ilang, Mahakkam R., Dutch Borneo. Presented by R. Shelford, Esq., M.A., Hope Department, University Museum, Oxford. Very large sheet of bark-cloth, S-shaped banana knife, wooden knife, 2 straining-tubes for drinking native beer and girdle-ring worn by female children, Uganda, Africa. Presented by Prof. E.A. Minchin, M.A., F.R.S., 4 Tennyson Mansions, Cheyne Row, Chelsea, S.W. Chert lance-head with lateral notches, Upper Egypt. Presented by Dr. C.G. Seligmann, I5 York Terrace, Regent's Park, London. Thirty-nine stone implements and flakes, Eastern Tasmania. Presented by E.A. Elliott, Esq., Secretary, Tasmanian Field Naturalists Club, Hobart, Tasmania. Facsimile of phosphorus-bottle fire-making set, English early nineteenth century, the original is in the Saffron Walden Museum; pair of "dibbling-irons" for planting corn, Essex. Presented by Miller Christy, Esq., 115 Farringdon Road, London, E.C. Two charms of blue-glaze-ware worn as charms against the evil-eye, Van, Armenia. Presented by Mrs. Margoliouth, 88 Woodstock Road, Oxford. Twenty-two flint implements from Knowle Farm pit and 2 from Winterbourne Bassett, Wilts. Presented by Rev. H.O. Kendall, M.A., The Vicarage, Winterbourne Bassett, Swindon, Wilts. Pair of "dibbling-irons" for planting corn, Essex. Presented by J. Edge-Partington, Esq., The Kiln House, Greywell, Hants.

Fine pair of copper and brass ceremonial trumpets, Tibet. (H.W. Shawcross.) Obsolete wool-weaver's bobbin, Witney, Oxon. (Carter.) Broad-bladed dagger, Congo, Africa. (London.) Dangsa or satchel, ornamented with skulls of monkeys and 9 spear-heads, Naga, Assam; 2 rambai, peacock-feather darts, Assam; Malayan kris; club, New Caledonia; threshing-flail, Oxon.; steel cuirass, arm-guards, blunderbuss, battle-axe, a number of knives, ring-handled dagger, swords, and chain mail jacket, India. (Parker.) Elizabethan gold "touch-piece"; Russian doll and whistle; model of obsolete sheep-tally, South Downs; set of 4 sheep-tallies, S. Downs; Japanese hanging-lamp. (E. Lovett.) Seven miniature bronze imitations of stone celts, Benin, W. Africa. (Webster.) Three Bedouin pipe-bowls, sickle, scissors, 11 spindle- whorls, sling, shepherd's shoes, coffee pestle and mortar, 3 early forms of powder-flasks, pair of Syrian Jews' phylacteries, models of tribulum and cotton-cleaning bow, 2 inscribed medicine-bowls, Syrian Gipsy blacksmith's outfit, screen used for stalking partridges, 12 pottery lamps, bronze lamp, bronze needle, 6 bronze arrow-heads, bronze cymbals, horse's head-stall decorated with cowries against the evil eye, horse's trappings similarly decorated, Jewish silver charm-hand, old carved figure of saint, silver mounted, silver charm-plaque, cake of sacred earth from the holy city of Kerbela near Baghdad, bronze medallion with figure of horse and inscription, 2 Chinese imported spoons of porcelain. (Miss K.M. Reynolds.) West Australian spear. (Oldman.) Native cricket-bat, Samoa; 8 spears, S. Pacific; spear with carved shaft, Aruwimi R., Congo State; very fine copper spear, same locality; spud-ended spear, Binnenland; brass-pointed staff, Congo; a number of swords, daggers, and knives, Congo State; coronet and 2 other feather ornaments, Putamayo River, Upper Amazons; 2 carved drums, Watakimi district, Dutch New Guinea; pair of riding-greaves with fixed spurs, W. Africa; bow and arrows of Pigmies, Great Congo Forest; pombe tubes, Usoga and Uganda; fly-whisk and cotton-spindle, Unyoro; threshing-flail and "thraw-crook" for rope-winding, Kincardineshire, N.B. (Stevens.) 132 palaeolithic implements and flakes from the gravel-quarry, Biddenham, near Bedford; 8 neolithic implements and flakes from the surface soil above the gravels; several neolithic implements and flakes from a field near Bedford. F.H.S. Knowles, B.A., Oriel College, Oxford.) Wooden spade, native-made axe, ditto adze, small bow and arrows, wooden spoon, fly-whisk, whip of plaited cane, salt-bag of palm-leaf, mirror frame, large tobacco-pipe, coil of tobacco, ise (mancala.) board, carved coco-nuts, 2, carved figures, Egbo mask, armlets and anklets, iron chain for carrying charms, small gourd rattle, iron lamp1 large brass lamp, z neck-cords with various charms worn by children, from Benin, S. Nigeria; Yoruba stirrup, Ilorin, Nigeria. (Collected by N.W. Thomas.) Pair of small percussion pistols with peculiar adaptation of the flint-lock hammer, by Clough and Sons, Bath; rapier with shell-guard, European. (Bateman.) Circular shield of damascened steel, India, and 2, circular shields of painted hide, probably from Scinde. (Godfrey.) Series illustrating the manufacture of pottery in Nubia. Collected by A.M. Blackman, M.A.)  Collection of Russian peasant articles, viz. :--peculiar carved distaff, Yaroslav; II wooden spindles, Great and Little Russia; satchel of plaited bark, Mohilev; tobacco-pipe and pouch; bark cone filled with resin hung in houses to keep offevil spirits, S. Russia; collection of various kinds of foot- gear from different provinces. (M. de Bernoff.) Ten pottery lamps, Arab and Christian, from Ain el Sultan, Syria. (Lawrence.) Collection of Indian arms, comprising helmet, fire-arms, swords, daggers, knives, axes, &c. (Hamlet and Dulake.)

Guitar made by Cayapa Indians, N. Ecuador; drum and xylophone, marimba, made by negroes of Santiago R., N. Ecuador. (H.S. Gordon.)

Collection of native-made dolls, India. (Lent by N.W. Thomas, Esq.) Ba Mbala nose-flute, Kwilu R., Congo State; 2 primitive harps, Welle R., Central Africa; hurdy-gurdy, Volhynia, W. Russia; accordion, Russia; Cheremiss zither and drum, Volga R., Kasan. (Lent by the Curator.)


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