The books and articles listed below are those that have been drawn on to prepare the information used on the website.


General Body Arts

Robert Brain, The Decorated Body (London: Hutchinson, 1979)

Rufus C. Camphausen, Return of the Tribal: A Celebration of Body Adornment—Piercing, Tattooing, Scarification, Body Painting (Rochester, Vermont: Park Street Press, 1997)

Margo DeMello, Encyclopedia of Body Adornment (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1997)

Victoria Ebin, The Body Decorated (London: Thames & Hudson, 1979)

Elizabeth Ewart and Michael O'Hanlon (eds), Body Arts and Modernity (Wantage, Oxon: Sean Kingston, 2007)

Angela Fisher, Africa Adorned (London: The Hamilton Press, 1984; reprinted 1996)

Karl Gröening, Decorated Skin: A World Survey of Body Art (London: Thames and Hudson, 1997)

Julian Jacobs and others, The Nagas: Hill Peoples of Northeast India—Society, Culture, and the Colonial Encounter (London: Thames and Hudson, 1990)

Howard Morphy, Aboriginal Art (London: Phaidon, 1998)

Michael O’Hanlon, Reading the Skin: Adornment, Display and Society among the Wahgi (London: British Museum Press, 1989)

Ted Polhemus, Body Styles (London: Lennard / Channel 4, 1988)

Ted Polhemus, The Customized Body (London: Serpent’s Tail, 1996)

Julian Robinson, The Quest for Human Beauty: An Illustrated History (London: W. W. Norton & Co., 1998)


Temporary Body Arts

Clare Brant, ‘Fume and Perfume: Some Eighteenth-Century Uses of Smell’, in The Journal of British Studies, Vol. 43, no. 4 (October 2004), pp. 444–63

Graham Child, World Mirrors, 1650–1900 (London: Philip Wilson, 1990) 

Louis C. G. Clarke, ‘Modern Survivals of the Sumerian Chatelaine,’ in E. E. Evans-Pritchard and others, Essays Presented to C. G. Seligman (London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1934), pp. 41–49

Constance Classen, David Howes and Anthony Synnot, Aroma: The Cultural History of Smell (London: Routledge, 1994)

Wendy Cooper, Hair: Sex, Society, Symbolism (London: Aldus, 1971)

Richard Corson, Fashions in Hair: The First Five Thousand Years (London: Peter Owen, 1965)

Jen Cruse, The Comb: Its History and Development (London: Robert Hale, 2007)

Gail Durbin, Wig, Hairdressing and Shaving Bygones (Princes Risborough: Shire Publications, 1984)

Fenja Gunn, The Artificial Face: A History of Cosmetics (Newton Abbott: David & Charles, 1973)

Alf Hiltebeitel and Barbara D. Miller (eds), Hair: Its Power and Meaning in Asian Cultures (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998)

Ralph Jackson, ‘Cosmetic Sets from Late Iron Age and Roman Britain’, Britannia, Vol. 16 (1985), pp. 165–92

Frances Kennett, History of Perfume (London: Harrap, 1975)

Malcolm Kirk, Man as Art (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 1993)

Sabine Melchior-Bonnet, The Mirror: A History (London: Routledge, 2001)

Katherine Lester and Bess Viola Oerke, Accessories of Dress: An Illustrated Encyclopedia (New York: Courier Dover Publications, 2004)

V. Sherrow, Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 2006)

Roy Sieber and Frank Herreman, ‘Hair in African Art and Culture’, in African Arts, Vol. 33, no. 3 (Autumn 2000), pp. 54–69, 96

Alexandra Walker, Scent Bottles (Princes Risborough: Shire Publications, 1987)


Life Cycle Arts

Philippe Ariès, Western Attitudes toward Death: From the Middle Ages to the Present (Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press, 1974)

Noah Benshea and Jordan Benshea, A World of Ways to Say “I Do”: Wedding Vows, readings, Poems, and Customs from Different Traditions and Cultures (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004)

Catherine Chambers, Marriage Celebrations (London: Cherrytree, 2003)

Gene Cooper, ‘Life-Cycle Rituals in Dongyang County: Time, Affinity, and Exchange in Rural China’, in Ethnology, Vol. 37, no. 4 (Autumn, 1998), pp. 373–94

Janice Delaney and others, The Curse: A Cultural History of Menstruation (New York: New American Library, 1977)

Debra Denker, ‘Pakistan’s Kalash: People of Fire and Fever’, National Geographic, no. 160 (October 1981), pp. 459–73

Joanne B. Eicher and Tonye V. Erekosima, ‘Kalabari Funerals: Celebration and Display’, in African Arts, Vol. 21, no. 1 (November 1987), pp. 38–45, 87–88

Vickie C. Elson, Dowries from Kutch: A Women's Folk Art Tradition in India (Los Angeles, Museum of Cultural History, University of California, 1979)

Frederick Thomas Elworthy, The Evil Eye (London: Random House, 1989; originally published 1895)

Roger Grainger, The Social Symbolism of Grief and Mourning (London: Jessica Kingsley, 1998)

Jean Holm and John Bowker (eds), Rites of Passage (London: Pinter, 1994)

Ibrahim Madauci, Yahaya Isa, and Bello Dauro, Hausa Customs (Zaria: Northern Nigerian Publishing Co, 1968)

Peter Metcalf and Richard Huntington (eds), Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, second edition)

Melinda A. Moore, ‘Symbol and Meaning in Nayar Marriage Ritual’, in American Ethnologist, Vol. 15, no. 2 (May 1988), pp. 254–73

Judith Perani and Fred T. Smith, The Visual Arts of Africa: Gender, Power, and Life Cycle Rituals (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998)

Neal. Sobania, Culture and Customs of Kenya (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003)

Christopher Spring, African Arms and Armour (London: British Museum Press, 1993)


Permanent Body Arts

Beatrice Blackwood and P. M. Danby, ‘A Study of Artificial Cranial Deformation in New Britain’, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 85, nos 1/2 (1955), pp. 173–91

Jane Caplan (ed), Written on the Body: The Tattoo in European and American History (London: Reaktion Books (2000)

Margo DeMello, Bodies of Inscription: A Cultural History of the Modern Tattoo Community (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2000)

John M. Graham and D. W. Smith, Smith’s Recognizable Patterns in Human Deformation (Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2007, third edition)

Michael King and Marti Friedlander, Moko: Maori Tattooing in the Twentieth Century (Auckland: David Bateman, 1999)

Hans Neleman, Moko: Maori Tattoo (Zurich and New York: Edition Stemmle, 1999)

Joseph Nevadomsky and Ekhaguosa Aisien, ‘The Clothing of Political Identity: Costume and Scarification in the Benin Kingdom’, in African Arts, Vol. 28, no. 1 (Winter 1995), pp. 62–73, 100

Olatunji Ojo, ‘Beyond Diversity: Women, Scarification and Yoruba Identity, in History in Africa, Vol. 35 (2008), pp. 347–74

Stephanie Pedersen, Bra: A Thousand Years of Style, Support and Seduction (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 2004)

Henk Schiffmacher and Burkhard Riemschneider (eds), 1000 Tattoos (Köln: Taschen, 2001)

Mary Nooter Roberts and Allen F. Roberts (eds), Memory: Luba Art and the Making of History (New York: Museum for African Art / Munich: Prestel, 1996)

Arnold Rubin (ed.), Marks of Civilization: Artistic Transformations of the Human Body (Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural History, University of California, 1988)
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