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N.B. The following is not necessarily a comprehensive list, it is still being prepared. In particular the list of bibliographic references is lacking.


1. Howitt's Australian Dictionary of Biography entry

2. Howitt's Oxford Dictionary of National Biography entry

3. Fison's Australian Dictionary of Biography entry

4. Fison's Oxford Dictionary of National Biography entry

5. Howitt's wikipedia entry

6. Fison's wikipedia entry

7. Howitt's Obituary Pastoralists Review 15 April 1908 p. 118

8. W.B. Spencer 'Alfred William Howitt', Victorian Naturalist, vol 24 no 12 April 1908 pp. 181-189

9. [Obituary] George Brown 'Lorimer Fison' Asian Methodist Missionary Review vol 17, no 10, February 1908, pp 1-3

10. Age (Melbourne), 31 Dec 1907.

11. J.G. Frazer. 1909 'Howitt and Fison', Folklore, vol 20, no 2 (June 1909) pp. 144-180

12. M.H. Walker. 1971. Come Wind, Come Weather, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press [Biography of Howitt]

13. 'Remembering Howitt' by Jenny Herbert, article from Gippsland Country Life 2013 [pdf]

Letters etc holdings:

1. Pitt Rivers Museum manuscript collections: 

Tylor papers Box 11a and 12: Fison correspondence and Howitt correspondence respectively

Correspondence with W. Baldwin Spencer see here Spencer papers Box 1B Correspondence with Howitt [1-35], Box I C: Correspondence from Lorimer Fison [1-26] and Box I D: correspondence to Fison [1-8]

2. AIATSIS [Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Straits Islander Studies] Library M69 A.W. Howitt collection:

Brief description:

BOX 1. FOLDER 1 – Letters to Howitt from W.J Kuhn (1880) and T.M. Sutton (1882-1897); FOLDER 2 – Letters to R.Brough Smyth from A.R Richardson and Robert Fraser; Letters from William Craig. Letters to Howitt from Mrs C. Smith; FOLDER 3 – Letters to Howitt from Harry E. Aldridge, Christie Palmerson; Notes by George Taplin; FOLDER 4 – Letters to Howitt from James Lalour, Jocelyn Brooke, A. pp.Wall and J.C. Muirhead; FOLDER 5 – Letters to Howitt from John Bulmer (1878–1907); FOLDER 6 – Letters to Howitt from Rev. F.A. Hagenauer (1880) and T & C Petrie (1899-1902); FOLDER 7 – Questionaires and notes; FOLDER 8 – Notes on the Wakelbura, Kungerduchi and Ngarogo people.

BOX 2. FOLDER 1 – Notes by Alfred C. Haddon. Notes by Howitt on vocabulary. Article by Howitt: ‘Message to Anthropologists’  Vocabulary wordlists. FOLDER 2 – Letters from Howitt to James Gibson Letters to Howitt from Andrew Lang Notes on religion and art FOLDER 3 – Notes on Kaiabara, White Cliff and Majauka people. FOLDER 4 – Notes on Kuno, Briakoloung, Wuk Wuk, Omeo, Turra and Kuringal peoples. FOLDER 5 – Letters from A.L.P Cameron (1880–1883), Mr Aresney, R. Sharp, S. Inspp. Britton, J. Telford and J. Shaw (1902–1903) FOLDER 6 – Draft letter regarding A. Lang, various notes FOLDER 7 – Newspaper clippings and published articles FOLDER 8 – Notes on Wide Bay area, Qld (missing) 

BOX 3. FOLDER 1 – Notes on Dieri, Yakinda, Antakerrinya peoples. Notes on relationships and social organisation.  Notes on Brabrolung people (including vocabulary). FOLDER 2 – Notes on social organisation, marriage customs, culture contact ane religious beliefs, legend of Bunjil and Thadagun. FOLDER 3 – Notes on religion, spirituality and language FOLDER 4 – Possible rough drafts for ‘Native Tribes’. FOLDER 5 – Various newspaper clippings. Notes by James Bonwick, J.D Woods and Thomas Livingston Mitchell. FOLDER 6 – Letter to J.A. Boyd. Notes on the interrelations of tribes, religion and art, social organisation, communication, totems and moeties. Map. FOLDER 7 – Questionnaire. Notes by P. Foelsche. Notes by Christie Palmerston. Various newspaper clippings and extracts. FOLDER 8 – Notes on Dalebura people. Notes on signals.  Notes by R.L. Jack.  Notes by James Gunther. Notes by E.A. Robinson. Newspaper clippings.

BOX 4. FOLDER 1 – Comparative anthropology notes. Letters from Boultbec (?), Petrie, Gibson, James Lalor, A.L.P Cameron, Harry E. Aldridge FOLDER 2 – Comparative anthropology notes. FOLDER 3 - Comparative anthropology notes. 

BOX 5. FOLDER 1 – Letters from E. Palmer, R.A. Chisney, J. Lett, A. Meston FOLDER 2 – Letters from C. Doyle, J. Stahle, J.C. Muirhead, W.E. Roth, F. James, Clive ?, J. Gibson, R.L. Jack, W. Wyndham FOLDER 3 –Notes on Lake Eyre, Gippsland, Rockhampton regions, medicine men, all-father belief, the Bangerang and the Dieri FOLDER 4 - Notes on class systems, marriage and descent rules. Notes on Lake Eyre and Coopers Creek. Notes on Victoria and New South Wales. Notes on Arunta FOLDER 5 – Notes on myth, languages, economic life, exploration. Draft of letter in reply to J.C. Muirhead. Notes on the Wakelbura and the Dieri people.

BOX 6. FOLDER 1 – Notes on the Dieri. Notes on work of Lang. Notes on social organisation and Magic. Letters to Sergeant Fortescue (draft) and Sargeant Carter FOLDER 2 – Letters from R. Beardsmore E.A. Webb H.E. Hockey George Newland R.B. Howard Mr Gaw W. Craig Rev. J. Taylor J.A. Boyd & Son J. Gaggin Alfred Walker May Benson; Mr Carter; Percy Fortescue and Charles Barrett FOLDER 3 - Draft letter to Percy Fortescue. Letter and notes to Sgt. Carter. List of questions to C.H. Harris. Various notes. FOLDER 4 - Notes on social organization; Liverpool Plains – census; La Trobes summary of pp. 164 of Protectors Report, 1842; extracts from reports; Notes on Brewarrina Station; brief census notes on whole of Victoria; correspondence from R.S. Evans, J.G. Ferguson and A. Cameron; notes on Bourke District; notes on Kurnai, Gippsland. FOLDER 5 - Notes on communication, social organisation and class systems. Notes on theories of John Mathews and Andrew Lang. Notes on the Mukjarawaint, Kulin and Kurnai peoples. FOLDER 6 – Notes on N.S.W. tribes; notes on social organisation; notes on Mossgiel tribes; notes on contact; notes on the Barkinji tribe; notes on Wiradjuri; notes on totemic system

BOX 7. FOLDER 1 - Notes on the Beyu relationshipp. Notes on the Ta-ta-thi, Wolgal, Wakelbura, Gringai, Wiradjuri, Turribul, Wimbaio and Darling River peoples. Notes on initiation and magic. Notes on Queensland tribes. FOLDER 2 - Notes on initiation. Notes on the Murring, Moma, Cardwell, Weary Bay and Wiradhuri peoples. Notes to Mr. Boyd.  Letter from John Gaggin FOLDER 3 - Notes on Cardwell, Gippsland, Dieri and Wonkanguru peoples. Notes on magic and legends. Letter to Otto Siebert from Howitt. Letter from Otto Siebert to Howitt. FOLDER 4 – Notes on marriage, tribal Government and totems. Letter from Otto Siebert. Letters and notes to Miss M. Benson.  Notes on Wimbaio and Chepara peoples. FOLDER 5 – Miscellaneous Letters , Notes & Extracts / Clippings FOLDER 6 – Notes on religion, tooth avulsion, racial and social organisation and economic life. Discussion of Alfred Lang’s works.  Notes on the Dieri. FOLDER 7 – Notes on social organisation, religion, relationship and marital terms, rain-makers, tribal Government and organisation. Draft of one of Howitt’s publications. Notes on the Chepara and Maryborough peoples.

BOX 8. FOLDER 1- Notes on initiation ceremonies (eastern type) and classes. Notes on Kulin, Yerkla-Meening, Kiabara and Kurnai peoples. Notes on tribes around Maryborough. Letter from Jocelyn Brooke. Notes on Fraser Island tribe. FOLDER 2 – Letters from: Jocelyn Brooke Harry Aldridge L. Fison Mr Keith T. Petrie pp. M. Byrns Rev. G. Taplin Rev. Otto Siebert pp. Pirie Rev. S.G. Reuther G. Vernon F. Gasrell J.C. Muirhead W. Pepper A.L. pp. Cameron J. Bulmer FOLDER 3 – Notes on class systems and relationships (inc. diagram). Notes on the Turribul, Kurnai and Dieri peoples.  Notes on Port Essington.
Draft letter to Mr Byrne. Questionnaires and diagrams. Notes on Kamimara relationshipp. FOLDER 4 – Notes on the Dieri and Urabunna peoples. Notes on totemism, cannabilism and initiation ceromonies (eastern type). Draft letter to J.G. Reuther. FOLDER 5 – Notes on the Narrinyeri, Kurnai and Yuin peoples Draft of chapter 2 (tribal organisation). Notes on social organisation and relationship terms. Notes to Otto Siebert. Diagram of Bora ground and notes. Notes from Aldridge. Plan of initiation ground. FOLDER 6 – Notes on Kulin, Yuin and Kamilaroi, Titric, Biarne, Tongaranka, Tari-ma, Kurnai, Kingalu and Turribul peoples. Notes on social organisation, beliefs and marriage rules. 

BOX 9. FOLDER 1 – Notes on marriage rules, economic life, notes on birth customs, camping rules, division of food, hunting and infanticide. Notes on Yuin and Turribul people. Notes on Eucla (Ikulla) people. FOLDER 2 – Notes on social organisation; Notes on the Narrinyerri, Kamilaroi, Dieri, Buandik and Yualaroi peoples.  Notes on Lang’s criticisms.  Notes on all-father belief. FOLDER 3 - Notes on the Wonghibon, Dieri, Urabunna, Wiradjuri, Kamilaroi, Kulin and Wolgal peoples.  Extracts from various books; notes on tribes around Port Lincoln area. FOLDER 4 – Green notebooks – extracts from various books. [List as taken from AIATSIS website in February 2013]

3. State Library of Victoria Howitt papers: MS 9356; MS 10241:

Contents/Summary: Letters to family in England from A. W. Howitt and his wife Maria Robinson (née Boothby). Autobiography of William Howitt (1792-1879). Correspondence includes letters from the following: Daisy Bates, Rev. L. Fison, Sir James Frazer, E. Morris Miller, Professor Sir Baldwin Spencer and Eugene von Guérard. Articles, circulars, memoirs and notes on aboriginal customs. Aboriginal vocabulary lists. Maps and charts. Instructions for the relief of the Burke and Wills expedition from the Chairman and from the Secretary of the Exploration Committee of the Royal Society of Victoria. Diary of A. W. Howitt on trip to 'Far North' 1859-1860. Includes a printed map of Howitt's tracks, 1862 (MC 7, DR 4). Includes a printed map of the route from Jamieson's Station, Darling River to Altolka of Burke, 1862 (MCFB 7)
Microfilm copy of original ms., typescript and printed. Microfilm includes papers relating to Aboriginal tribes at MSM 458 to MSM 460 and the autobiography of William Howitt (1792-1879) at MSM 545. These will be issued in preference to the original material.
Described in: Ian D. Clark. "The A.W. Howitt papers", La Trobe Library journal vol. 11, no. 43, Autumn 1989, pp. 30-31.

4. State Library of Victoria Fison papers 

Correspondence of Lorimer Fison, mainly related to ethnological matters. It consists of 35 letters from Lewis Henry Morgan, American ethnologist; one from Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution one from Andrew MacKenzie; one from Alexander Falconer. Other letters (numbers indicated) are from Spencer Baird to L.H. Morgan (1); L.H. Morgan to Mrs. Watts (1) L.H. Morgan to A.W. Howitt (2). The original letters are dated 1870-1881. The typescript copies were probably prepared ca. 1958. ?Typescript carbon copies of 42 letters (Box 31/1 (a) - (g): 35 written by Morgan to Fison during the period 19 August, 1870 to 4 July, 1881; 1 letter from Joseph Henry, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, 27 November, 1871; 1 letter from Andrew Mackenzie, 30 December 1871, Maelly, Wandandian; 1 letter from Alexander Falconer, 27 June, 1873, Eildon, near Alexandria; 1 letter to L.H. Morgan from Spencer Baird, Smithsonian Institution, 18 October, 1879; 1 letter to Mrs A.M.H. Watts from L.H. Morgan, 21 January, 1881, Rochester; 2 letters from A.V. Howitt to L.H. Morgan, 16 October 1879 & 4 February, 1880, Rochester. [My thanks to Jason Gibson for this information]

5. Museum Victoria Howitt & Fison papers Our thanks to Philip Batty for providing this information and allowing us to add it to this website.

6. University of Rochester Lewis H. Morgan papers [correspondence with Fison and Howitt][no details yet, but see Stern below] also held at Mandeville Special Collections Library, University College, San Diego MSS 0473 Fison papers 16 October 1873 to 15 October 1878 and State Library of New South Wales PMB 1043 [microfiche]?

7.  ‘Australian Centre for Christianity and Culture’ in Canberra, recently annexed by Charles Sturt University

8. South Australian Museum 

Transcript of a letter from South Australian Museum [AA108_12041897] from Fison to Gillen

12 April 1897

Dear Mr Gillen,

I cannot refrain from writing a hurried note – though I am up to the eyes & overhead in work just now – to tell you how glad I was to hear Spencer’s report of your work at the Engwura. As I said at the Royal Society Inst Thursday evening, after Spencer had finished, “It is the most magnificent bit of anthropological work that has been done for many a year”. I enclose you a couple of newspaper cuttings – one from The Age, & the other from the “Public Talk” column of my own little paper, this latter being only a printer’s proof. The par. will appear in our issue of the 16th [?].

Spencer at the Royal Society gave you full acknowledgement, & asked me to say something about the value of your own personal work. This I did at the Royal, & am still [?] in other quarters. Your own work made his possible, & on the other hand you are fortunate in securing a comrade such as he. In addition to Spencer’s report at the Royal, Howitt & I have had two long evenings with him, at which we did nothing else but talk over the splendid results of your work.

Will you tell Spencer’s “royal elder brother” that if I possibly could I would make the journey all the way to his country to great him, & to talk to him about things in general? Also tell him that I found a tribe in Fiji – only in one part of the “Great land”, who brought stone churinga with them when they first came to the country. Their chief, whose name was Lútunasómbusómba, lost his vátu vðlái (inscribed stones) by the upsetting of his canoe when he got within the barrier reef. They were in a basket, carefully covered up, & sank when the canoe was capsized. He mourned for them, saying, “My descendants will be in evil case because my vatu volai are lost” . He set up a stone pillar on the spot where he landed, & carved on it the markings which were on the “inscribed stones”. They were these [Illustration & pencil notation] They are found in N Europe also & I have seen them on Yorkshire wolds.

Also please tell him that another tribe elsewhere in Fiji, on another island, & in that place alone, have the Engwura; but they have lost all memory of what it means, & have now only a mere remnant of it. The Arunta only have it in perfection.
If I were not in an absolutely stone-broke condition financially, I should be delighted to send you a P.O. for a few pounds of tobacco as a present to my Wild-cat relatives; but when my ship comes in I will do so. At present she is detained by contrary winds.

With many congratulations

Yours sincerely
Lorimer Fison

Museum holdings:

1. Pitt Rivers Museum

1.1 Pitt Rivers Museum photograph collections:

a. Howitt

2009.148.3 Portrait of William Howitt, sitting in a chair, and a woman (presumably his wife), standing behind him, with a younger woman (Howitt's grand-daughter) dressed in white standing beside them, an example of a 'spirit photograph'. This photograph was found in Tylor's spiritualism work diary [PRM ms collections Tylor papers]

b. Fison

2000.15.7 Photographic portrait of Lorimer Fison by Louis Grouzelle of Melbourne in carte-de-visite format. Acquired via EB Tylor after 1883

1.2 Pitt Rivers Museum object collections:

a. Howitt:

1893.30.1  April A.W. Howitt Esq Department of Mines, Melbourne - One of a pair of ceremonial shoes or sandals, made of human hair and felted emu feathers, Arunda tribe, Charlotte Waters, S. Australia, worn by the Black fellow medicine man when "rain making" also by men on expeditions to avenge death or on other occasions v [view] letters to Dr Tylor

1911.1.66-68 PROF. E.B. TYLOR, F.R.S. Linden, Wellington, Somerset. Jan. - 3 fire-drill sets of different woods, Mycoolon tribe, Lower Flinders R., N.W. Central Queensland. [These are known to come from Howitt as they are mentioned in letters held in the PRM manuscript collections, they were obtained by Howitt from Edward Palmer and James Gibson]

1911.1.70 PROF. E. B. TYLOR, F.R.S. Linden, Wellington, Somerset. Jan. - fire drill set, Woiworung (Wiranjuri), Yarra R., Victoria, Australia.

1911.32.10 PROF. E. B. TYLOR - Bullroarer, "large Tundun", Kurnai, Gippsland, Victoria. (The fact that Howitt collected this item is recorded on the object as it is the fact that it was 'used at the jeraeil ceremony (initiation)'.)

1911.32.11-12 PROF. E. B. TYLOR - 2 ditto ['bullroarers'] rukut tundun, ib. [Kurnai, Gippsland, Victoria](The fact that Howitt collected these items is recorded on the objects as it is the fact that .12 was 'used at the jeraeil ceremony (initiation)'.)

1917.53.461 COLLECTION of the late Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Presented by LADY TYLOR, 1917 - Bull-roarer, bribbun, swung at initiation ceremonies, CHEPARA tribe, S. QUEENSLAND COAST (S. of Brisbane). (Fig. by A.W. Howitt "S. Austr.", fig. 35).

1917.53.462 COLLECTION of the late Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Presented by LADY TYLOR, 1917 - Bull-roarer, NARRANG-GA tribe, E. side of Spencer G. [Gulf] S. Australia (Howitt fig. 40)

1917.53.463 COLLECTION of the late Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Presented by LADY TYLOR, 1917 - Bull-roarer, Yuntha, used in the Wilyaru ceremony, DIERI tribe, E. of L. EYRE. (Howitt, fig. 29).

1917.53.464 COLLECTION of the late Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Presented by LADY TYLOR, 1917 - Bull-roarer, mudthi, "voice of Daramulun, YUIN tribe, coast of NEW SOUTH WALES, c. 36˚S. (Howitt fig. 29)

1917.53.567-572: COLLECTION of the late Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Presented by LADY TYLOR, 1917 - 6 Guliwil, pieces of hard wood tapering towards the two ends, the largest of them engraved on both surfaces.  These were magically identified with some enemy and were then roasted to cause his death. WOTJOBALUK tribe, CENT. VICTORIA. Collected by A.W. Howitt (v. Howitt "S. Australia", fig.21)

1989.46.1-11 [All these objects were found unentered in museum documentation in 1989 and accessioned one hundred and six years after being sent by Howitt] '11 Message sticks'  'Presented by A.W. Howitt Esq. 1883'. .1 is marked 'No. 3'; .2 is 'No. 5'; .3 is 'No. 6:  Notched message stick with incised pattern. Its purpose was to invite people to come to a corroboree. Groups of notches denote the senders, the recipients of the message and the fact that ALL the men are invited'; .4 'Message stick incised with crisscross lines and painted with Reckitt's laundry blue. This was sent from a man of the Wakelbura to one of the Yangebura at Blackall, inviting him to join the 'writer' in a hunt for game (emu and wallaby) near a certain wire fence on Mr. Wallace's station near Clermont. The sender belonged to the Obu class (or totem) and the wood is therefore of a kind (ACACIA HOMALOPHYLLA) which belongs to the same class, as are the game referred to'; .5 is not marked; .6 'No. 7'; .7 'No. 4 Message stick sent merely as a friendly reminder by a man of the Maigulung (Maikulon) tribe to a man of the Maiapi tribe'; .8 'No. 3  Message stick sent by a man at Flinders River to a friend at Mitchell River, to inform him that his wife was dead, the white pipeclay (the mourning colour) being symbolically used to denote death. Kugobathi'; .9 'Message stick sent by a Tongaranka man inviting two friends to come and see him.  The three notches represent the sender and two friends. Wrapped in cotton to prevent loss.'; .10 'Message stick sent by the son of the headman  of the Tongaranka to a man at Tarella, telling him the sender, his two brothers and two old men were at a certain water hole and wished him to bring his son to be initiated as there were two other boys ready for the ceremony.  All these are indicated by notches.  Wrapped in fur string:  this is symbolic as it consists of portions of the fur kilt and cord worn by a young man after initiation.'; .11 'Message token of feathers bound with human hair, made by 'Old Man Plongreen' and carried by a messenger to collect the tribe for ceremonial purposes.  It may not be shown to women or children.' 

(A total of 33 objects).

b. Fison

1884.111.35 (Nose flute from Fiji made by Filimone Tagiveitaua, mistakenly attributed either to the founding collection or to Henry Nottidge Moseley but recently discovered to probably be collected by Lorimer Fison in 1883 according to PRM ms collections Tylor papers Fison 30)

1885.8.1-4 Annual Report 1883 Oxford University Museum Donations to the University Museum The following is a List of the Donations which have been made to the University Museum, Oxford, during the year 1883:- Anthropology ... Bamboo lime-box and stick, from Ysabel, Solomon Islands, three fish hooks from San Cristoval Captain Martin, Mission Ship “John Hunt” through Rev Lorimer Fison, Fiji.

(A total of 7 objects). 

2. Museum Victoria

This museum has some objects from A.W. Howitt, a list is available here. It also holds papers from Howitt (see above). Our thanks to Philip Batty for providing this information and allowing us to add it to this website.

3. There do not appear to be any Howitt or Fison objects in the British Museum collections, or in the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.


Joint Publications:

A.W. Howitt and Lorimer Fison. 1880 Kamilaroi and Kurnai, Melbourne: George Robertson

A.W. Howitt and Lorimer Fison. 1883. 'Notes on the Australian Class Systems' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 12, (1883), pp. 496-512

A.W. Howitt and Lorimer Fison. 1883. 'From Mother-Right to Father-Right' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 12, (1883), pp. 30-46

A.W. Howitt and Lorimer Fison. 1885. 'On the Deme and the Horde' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 14, (1885), pp. 141-169

A.W. Howitt and Lorimer Fison. 1889. 'Further Notes on the Australian Class Systems' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 18, (1889), pp. 31-70

Fison's publications:

1880. 'Views on Primitive Marriage' Popular Science Monthly vol. 17 June 1880

1880. 'Australian Marriage Laws' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 9, (1880), pp. 354-357

1881. 'Notes on Fijian Burial Customs' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 10, (1881), pp. 137-149

1881. 'Land Tenure in Fiji' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 10, (1881), pp. 332-352

1882. 'On Fijian Riddles' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 11, (1882), pp. 405-410

1885. 'The Nanga, or sacred stone enclosure, of Wainimala, Fiji' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 14, (1885), pp. 14-31

[W.A. Clouston] 1887. 'Two South Pacific Folk-Tales' Folklore Journal vol. 5 no. 3 pp. 254-257

1895. 'The Classificatory System of Relationship' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 24, (1895), pp. 360-371

1904. Tales from Old Fiji. A. Moring De la more press

Howitt's publications (on anthropological subjects):

1884. 'On some Australian ceremonies' The Journal of the Anthropological Institute , Vol. 13, (1884), pp. 432-459

1884. 'On some Australian beliefs' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 13, (1884), pp. 185-198

1884. 'On some Australian ceremonies of initation' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 13, (1884), pp. 432-459

1885. 'The Jeraeil, or initiation ceremonies of the Kurnai tribe' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 14, (1885), pp. 301-325

1886. 'On the Migrations of the Kurnai Ancestors' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 15, (1886), pp. 409-422

1887. 'On Australian Medicine Men: or, Doctors and Wizards of some Australian tribes' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 16, (1887), pp. 23-59

1887. 'Notes on Songs and Songmakers of some Australian tribes' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 16, (1887), pp. 327-335

1889. 'Notes on Australian message sticks and messengers' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 18, (1889), pp. 314-332

1890. 'Note by Mr A.W. Howitt, as to Descent in the Dieri tribe' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 19, (1890), p. 90

1891. 'The Dieri and Other Kindred Tribes of Central Australia' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 20, (1891), pp. 30-104

1904. The Native Tribes of South-east Australia, London: Macmillan

and Otto Siebert. 1904. 'Legends of the Dieri and Kindred Tribes of Central Australia' Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. 34, (Jan-Jun, 1904), pp. 100-129

1907. 'Native Tribes of South-East Australia' Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 37, (Jul. - Dec., 1907), pp. 268-278

1907. '61. The natives tribes of South-East Australia' Man, Vol. 7, (1907), pp. 101-102

1907. 'Australian Group-Relationships' Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 37, (Jul. - Dec., 1907), pp. 279-289

and A. Lang. 1907. 'The natives tribes of South-East Australia' Folklore, Vol. 18, no 1 (Mar 1907), pp. 91-93

A list of other writing listed in M.H. Walker's 1971 biography of A.W. Howitt, Come Wind, Come Weather

Other relevant publications:

1. M.E.B. Howitt 1913. 'The Howitts in Australia', Victorian Historical Magazine vol 3 no 1 (September 1913) pp. 1-24

2. B.J. Stern [ed.] 1930 'Selections from the Letters of Lorimer Fison and A. W. Howitt to Lewis Henry Morgan' American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 32, No. 2 (Apr, 1930), pp. 257-279 and No. 3, Part 1 (Jul-Sep., 1930), pp. 419-453.

3. R. Lawrence 1969 'Aboriginal Habitat and Economy', (Canberra: Department of Geography, School of General Studies, The Australian National University, Occasional Papers No. 6., 1969). [gives details of Howitt's questionaire sent to correspondents]

4. D.J. Mulvaney. 1970. 'The Anthropologist as Tribal Elder' Mankind, vol 7. no 3. (June 1970) pp. 205-217

5. D.J. Mulvaney 1971 'The ascent of Aboriginal Man: Howitt as Anthropologist', in M.H. Walker, 1971 Come Wind, Come Weather Melbourne. pp. 285-312

6. Lynette Turner, 1997 ‘Alfred W. Howitt and Lorimer Fison: “Victorian” ethnography and the gendered “primitive”’, in Tim Youngs, Writing and Race, New York and London: Longman

7. Alison Petch, and Jason Gibson 2013 ‘‘The Ablest Australian Anthropologists’: two early Australian anthropologists and Oxford’ JASO Online 5/1 (2013) pp60-85. PDF

8. Thomas, Martin. 2012. The many worlds of R.H. Mathews: In search of an Australian anthropologist. Sydney: Allen & Unwin

9. Hiatt, L.R. 1996 Arguments about Aborigines: Australia and the evolution of social anthropology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 


1. Picturing Alfred Howitt [Henry Skerrit, 2011]

AP February 2013

[NB all the information taken from the various websites listed and links shown above are accurate only in February 2013, readers are therefore advised to check the original websites directly for confirmation that the holdings remain the same]

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Supported by the John Fell OUP Research Fund


(c) 2012 Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford