Notes and Queries 1874 page 30-31

As this paper makes clear, Pitt-Rivers (or as he was then, Lane Fox) made a very vital contribution to the early development of Notes and Queries, the manual of how to carry out anthropological fieldwork originally set up by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, and then by the (Royal) Anthropological Institute.

1874 First Edition of Notes and Queries

Pitt-Rivers was responsible for nine sections of the first edition, for most of these you can see that it was his personal interests (and knowledge areas) that drove the choice, but a couple of the sections are a little more unexpected (circumcision, games and amusements).

Part II Culture

XIX.-- ARCHAEOLOGY [page 28 and on]

Much information is wanted respecting the archaeology of savage and barbarous countries. Most of the stone implements received from Australia and the Pacific Islands are of recent manufacture, and no evidence has yet come to hand to throw light on the origin and duration of the stone period of culture in those regions. In New Zealand, however, something has been effected in this direction by discoveries in ancient deposits. In Japan, evidence of a stone age corresponding in its forms to our neolithic period has been discovered, but no trace of a bronze age. From China we have received specimens of both stone and bronze implements; but detailed evidence on the subject is wanting. From the Asiatic islands a few stone and bronze implements have been received. In Birmah stone and bronze implements have been discovered. In India three periods have been recognized, corresponding to our palaeolithic, neolithic, and bronze periods; but comparatively little is known as yet respecting them. From Central and Northern Asia information is wanting respecting both stone and bronze implements. Stone implements of neolithic forms have been found at the Cape of Good Hope and in Western Africa. Palaeolithic forms have also been found at the Cape of Good Hope; but we have no evidence of their [sic] being of the palaeolithic period. In North and South America relics of the stone age are more abundant, and a bronze period is recognized in the central regions of America. When it is considered that the palaeolithic implements of Europe have only attracted the attention of archaeologists during the last fifteen years, it is not surprising that in uncultivated countries so little should be known of the relics that are hidden beneath the soil. It is very desirable that, when opportunity offers, the river-drifts and cave-deposits should be examined for the relics of a past age, and that attention of travellers should be directed to the débris scattered on the surface and in the surface-soils turned up by cultivation for the vestiges of a more advanced stone period. The ancient tombs and tumuli should also be examined, and their relics preserved whenever it can be done without offending the superstitions of the people.

Notes and Queries 1874 page 32-33

Palaeolithic Period (River-drift).-- 1. Notice any evidence that may exist of the erosion of valleys by their rivers. 2. Do terraces exist on the sides of the valleys? how many, at what heights above the existing rivers, and at what distances from their present course? 3. Do such terraces and drift-deposits consist of gravel, sand, or other alluvial matter? and are the deposits stratified, as if by the action of running water? 4. Are the materials all derived from the present area of drainage? 5. Do they contain freshwater or marine shells, human or other animal remains, or stone implements? if so, preserve them carefully. 6. Label each specimen with the locality at once, and give sections to scale showing the exact depth beneath the surface at which the remains were found; note the thickness of the various stratified layers above them, and obtain as nearly as possible the height above the existing river. 7. What is the growth of timber upon the terraces? and is there any marked difference in the flora of the different terraces? 8. What is the excavating-power of the river at the present time, as shown by the damage caused by floods? how high do the floods of the river rise at present? is the present bed of the river rising or sinking? 9. Should opportunity occur, look for implements chiefly at the bottom of the gravels between then river-drift and the adjacent rocks, in the position shown by a + in the following imaginary section across a valley [see illustration, showing page 30-31]. 10. The following, amongst many varieties, are the two principal types which have been found in Europe, in the drift-gravels, associated with the remains of elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and other extinct animals; these illustrations are contributed by John Evans, Esq., F.R.S.

Caves. -- 11. Examine the floor of caves by cuttings from the surface as far as the solid rock; take sections of the deposits and note the relics discovered in each stratum. In limestone caverns, note the thickness of any stalagmite coating upon or beneath the floors. 12. It must be remembered that strata representing vast periods of time may be represented by deposits only a few feet or even inches in thickness, and that a very false impression might be conveyed by any error in labelling or describing the position of the specimens. Animal remains should be preserved for examination at home, and for submission to a comparative anatomist, especially if the traveller is not one himself. 13. Note the elevation of the mouths of the caverns above the existing watercourses, and give plans and sections when practicable.

Notes and Queries 1874 page 34-35

Neolithic (Surface) Period. -- 14. Implements of neolithic type are likely to be found in soil turned up by cultivation, or where the surface has been removed by rains, on the borders of plateau-lands overlooking a valley, near the margins of ancient forests, or in any place suitable for an escarpment near water; attention may be drawn to such spots by observing the flakes which are always abundant in places where stone implements have been fabricated. 15. Note what class of pottery, if any, is found with flakes and implements on the surface. 16. Notice whether the implements have been formed by chipping or by grinding; if by grinding, look for the concave rubbing-stones on which they were ground. 17. Notice any evidence that may exist of metal having been used at the same time or subsequently to the stone implements. 18. Preserve any bone implements or other relics found on the spot. 19. Should any implements be found with holes bored through them, notice whether the holes are cylindrical or enlarged towards the outside, having been bored from the two sides. 20. Preserve as many specimens as possible, and label them all at once, by writing with ink upon the stones if possible; take measurements and make outline drawings of any that cannot be carried away, and notice what animal remains are found with them. 21. The following illustrations of some of the principal types of neolithic implements found in this country are contributed by John Evans, Esq., F.R.S. 22. The traveller before starting should make himself thoroughly acquainted with these forms, and also with the appearance of stone flakes, bulbs of percussion, facets, &c., and he should be able to distinguish the drift-types from the surface-types as they are known in this country.

Megalithic Monuments.-- 23. Dig between the uprights of megalithic monuments to ascertain if they have been used as burial-places, taking care not to overturn the stones. 24. Take plans, marking the uprights in lines and the cap-stones in dotted lines, noting the compass-bearings, and be particular in stating that they are compass-bearings, when such is the case, and not true bearings. 25. Are holes bored in the uprights? and are there any superstitious observances in the country connected with these or similar holes? 26. Note the topographical position, whether situated on hill-tops, on the terraces of river-valleys, and so forth 27. Note the age of any trees growing within or upon these or similar monuments. 28 Is there any evidence of the stones having formerly been covered by a tumulus? 29. Describe all the varieties that exist, and ascertain, if possible, whether the varieties of form are due to original design or to subsequent dilapidations. 30. What is the greatest observed size of single stones? Is the stone used found close to hand, or has it been brought from a distance? 31. Are they ever daubed with red or any other colouring-matter? 32. Recount any traditions of the inhabitants respecting these monuments 33. Are votive offerings still made at these monuments? and have the superstitions connected with them been incorporated into the religion of the period?

Tumuli. -- Burial-places. --- 34. Take sections of the surface of tumuli, when possible, before excavating them; drive in a peg in some spot where it is not likely to be covered by the excavated material, and let this be a standard of reference for the levels of all objects discovered in the tumulus. 35. Cut a trench from the outside towards the centre at least one half the width of the tumulus, throwing back the earth; be careful to reach the undisturbed soil everywhere; look out for holes in the undisturbed soil, and examine their contents carefully; when the central interment is reached, dig downwards over it from the top. 36 Note the levels of any layers of charcoal that may occur, also animal remains. 37. If the tumulus has been used as a place of interment subsequently to its original construction, distinguish carefully the primary from the secondary interments. 38. For relics deposited with the dead (see LXII). 39. Take the compass-bearings of all interments, preserve the skulls, if possible, with the lower jaws, and even any fragments of skulls, and measure the bones (II.)

Ancient Intrenchments.-- 40. (XLII WAR) Cut into the ditches of ancient intrenchments in search of any relics which may have accumulated at the bottom and become silted over.

Lake Habitations. -- 41. Examine small islands near the shores of lakes or rivers, to see if they have been inhabited at a former period; see if piles of wood have been driven in round the margin, and whether there has been a communication with the shore by means of a causeway; preserve all relics found on or beneath the surface, and make a plan of the locality.

Inscriptions.-- 42. (LXXXVI)

Ancient Habitations. -- 43. Examine the floors of ancient habitations, as far as the undisturbed soil, for the relics of a past age; take plans. (LXXVI; HABITATIONS).

No. XLII-- WAR. By Col. A. LANE FOX. [Page 74 and on]

The arts of peace and war have at all times progressed simultaneously. No nation has ever achieved warlike renown without some corresponding progress in the industrial arts; nor has any nation survived which has neglected the art of war. It is necessary, therefore, to study the warlike institutions of a people, in order to form a true estimate of their culture.

Organization.-- 1. Does any custom equivalent to enlistment exist? 2. Are all adult males warriors, or are any of them reserved for other duties during war? and at what age do they begin to serve? are tallies or musters kept of the warriors? 3. What are the functions of the women during war? 4. Is there any permanent organization for war during peace, or is it extemporized on the outbreak of hostilities? 5. Have they sham fights during peace? and if so, describe them? 6. How are the warriors brought together preparatory to war? and how is war proclaimed - by heralds or others? 7. How are war-councils composed?

Discipline. -- 8. How are the leaders appointed? 9. Are they identical with civil governors, priests, and doctors? 10. Have they any distinctions of dress (give drawings)? 11. Are they the strongest and most courageous? 12. Have they any subordinate leaders, and how are they appointed? 13. Have they any rewards for warlike achievements, or punishments for offences in war? 14. Is the religion conducive to warlike prowess? 15. Have the chiefs any aids, or runners, or criers, to carry messages? and what authority do these possess?

Tactics. -- 16. Do warlike expeditions set out by word of command? 17. How is the march of a party conducted? do they move in a body or in detached parties, with a broad front or in a column? 18. Do they send forward advanced parties, or parties to guard the flanks? 19. Any specific order or custom with respect to encampments on the line of march? by whom are the encampments regulated? how are the horses tethered? any orders as to fires? how are the huts and tents made and placed? 20. Are battled planned beforehand 21. Have they any disposition or order of battle? do they stand in closed or open files, and how many deep, in line or in disorder? and how many under the command of one voice? do they keep step? how do cavalry and infantry support each other when these exist? how are the camp-followers and baggage disposed of? 22. How do they change from the column of route to the line of battle? 23. Are they courageous? and are the young and the weak placed in front or in rear? 24. Have they any war-songs, cries, or dances? 25. Have they any recognized cries or commands for moving to the right or left, advancing or retreating in battle? 26. Are any portion of the warriors kept in reserve? and if so, at what distance, and in what numbers 27. Hve they any knowledge of turning an enemy's flank? 28. Any regulated method of carrying, holding, or using their weapons? 29. Do they rely chiefly on missile or hand-weapons? and have they any special disposition for these arms? 30. Do they employ noise as a means of encouragement, or do they preserve silence in combat? 31. Do they stand and abuse the enemy before fighting, or boast of their warlike achievements? 32. Any knowledge of the advantages of ground or position in battle? under which circumstances do they quit a masked wood or defile, and take to the open? 33. Have they rallying-points in rear in case of defeat? 34. Do they employ treachery, concealment, or ambush? and what is their usual mode of proceeding in this respect? 35. Are superstitious customs or omens in connexion with war? [sic] 36. Do they especially preserve chastity during or before war? and is there any superstitions with respect to this custom? 37. Do they make night-attacks? 38. Any strategms for concealing their trail from the enemy? 39. Are dogs employed in war? 40. Are the horses well reared, trained, and treated? what is their speed and endurance? give any details respecting farriery, mode of riding, &c. 41. Do they form alliances with other tribes? and if so, to what extent do they act in concert, and under what leadership? 42. Do personal combats take place between men of the same tribe? and how are they conducted?

Weapons. -- 43. Describe minutely all the varieties of their war weapons. 44. Are the same weapons used in war and the chases, or as tools? 45. Describe their defensive armour, and its capabilities for defending the body. 46. Are special weapons used by particular tribes 47. Do the weapons vary in the same tribe? and what have been their varieties in times past? 48. Do they use the amentum, the throwing stick, or any other means of accelerating the flight of the javelin 49. Do they employ sinews, whalebone, or any other means of giving additional spring to the bow? 50. Are the arrows furnished with a foreshaft of hard heavy wood, and tipped with stone, glass, bone or metal? 51. Are feathers used with the arrows? how many? are they set on spirally, or are the heads twisted to give a spin to the arrow? 52. Describe the ingredients of any poison that may be used, its effects, and the cure employed. 53. Is the bow drawn to the shoulder or the chest? is it held horizontally or vertically? are the feet used in shooting? 54. What is the range, accuracy, and penetration of these missile weapons?

[Note.-- It appears desirable that some test of accuracy should be established. If the natives can be induced to shoot at a target, the distance of each shot from the point aimed at should be measured, added, and divided by the number of shots. The figure of merit obtained by this means would enable a comparison to be made with the shooting of other races conducted under similar conditions. If no measure is at hand, tie a knot in a string for each shot, and divide the string into as many equal parts as there are shots fired. A target composed of grass bands covered with paper might be used, not less than 6 feet in diameter. Misses should be scored with a deviation of four feet; distances 50, 100 150, and 200 paces of 30 inches.]

55. Have they any regular system of training to the use of weapons? and at what age do they begin? 56. Are the women trained to the use of weapons? 57. Are their weapons handed down as heirlooms from father to son? 58. Are the same forms of blades used for different weapons, as the axe-head, spear-head, sword, &.? 59. Are the points of wooden implements hardened in the fire? 60. Are stones thrown by hand in war? and if so, with what degree of force and accuracy? 61. Is there any thing resembling a standard? and what is its history? 62. Describe the manner in which European blades are hafted by the natives 63. Any use of slings, clubs (straight, curved, or mushroom-headed), crossbow, blowpipe, boomerang, holy-water sprinklers, knouts, glaives, bills, forked spears, pikes, gisarms, halbards, two-handed swords, serrated weapons, partisans, daggers, &. 64. Are the swords single- or double-edged, used for cutting or thrusting? 65. Are the heads of the arrows constructed to come off in the wound? any use of harpoons? 66. Do they throw their axes, daggers, or other weapons at the enemy? 67. Any use of sickle- or concave-edged swords? 68. Are ogee-sectioned blades used for spear-heads, swords, &c. (blades sunk on alternate sides)? 69. Describe all the varieties of shields. Are the shields used for parrying darts by twisted them in the hand? are plain sticks or clubs used for the same purpose? 70. Describe the meaning and use of all the marks and grooves on the metal blades. 71. Describe the mode of hafting, holding, and using all weapons. 72. To what extent have the natives adopted civilized weapons and abandoned their own? do they take readily to European weapons? 73 Careful drawings to scale of all the varieties of weapons are very desirable, with the native names for them. 74. Describe the horse-equipment used -- bits, saddles, spurs, cloths, and horse-armour.

Fortifications and Outposts. -- 75. Give plans and sections to scale of any defensive works. 76. Plans and sections of any pitfalls used for war. 77. Any knowledge of inundations for defensive purposes? 78. Any stakes, palisades, stockades, abatis or thorn-hedges for defence? 79. Do they employ caltraps (small spikes of wood or metal fixed into the ground to wound the feet)? 80. Do they ever build on raised piles for defence? 81. Do they fortify the villages in which they usually reside? or have they strong places in the neighbourhood to resort to in case of attack? 82. Are their fortified posts arranged to support each other for the mutual defence of a large district, or constructed for isolated and independent defence? 83. Do they occupy naturally defensive positions, such as hill-tops, promontories &c. ? 84. Are their defensive posts selected with a due regard to water-supply? are there cisterns? 85. Do they take in stores for prolonged defence, and make a protracted resistance? 86. Do they man the whole line of their entrenchments, or only defend the gateways? 87. Give plans of any special defences for the gateways, drawbridges, &c. 88. Any knowledge of second and third lines, keeps or advanced works? 89. Any arrangements for cross-fire, flanking defence, &c.? 90. Are loop-holes used? 91. When earthworks are employed, do they stand on or behind them? 92. Do their entrenchments command the whole of the ground on the outside within range of their weapons, and have they good command of view? 93. Do their entrenchments run in a straight line, or do they conform to the defensive line of the ground? 94. Is the size of the fortress regulated by the number of its defenders, or solely by the features of the ground? 95. Any knowledge of mines or fougasses? 96. Do the defenders roll down large stones on the enemy? and do they take in a store of them? 97. Any knowledge of fire-balls, fire-arrows, boiling oil, &c.? 98. How is the attack usually conducted? 99. Do they sit down and invest the place? 100. Any knowledge of escalading or breaching? and how is a breach defended? 101. Do they operate on the supplies of a fortified place? 102. Any lines of circumvallation or countervallation, saps, or breastworks against the place? when stone walls are used, are they covered by earthworks in front? 103. Have they scouts or outposts? 104. Do they employ special men for this duty, or do all take it in turn? 105. Are outposts arranged on any regular system? 106 Have they any special signals for war?

Supply.-- 107. How do they supply themselves during war 108. Does each man provide for himself? 109. Is any portable food used, especially for war? 110. Are their proceedings much hampered by the difficulty of supply? 111. How are requisitions made upon the inhabitants of their own or those of an enemy's country? 112. How do they carry their food, water, and baggage, and the forage for their horses?

Causes and Effects of War.-- 113. What are the chief causes of war? 114. Do feuds last long between tribes? 115. How do they treat their prisoners and wounded? 116. Have they any special customs with regard to the first prisoner that falls into their hands? 117. Do conquered tribes amalgamate, or do they become servile castes? 118. How are the women of conquered tribes dealt with? 119. How do they divide the spoil? 120. Are their attacks always succeeded by retreat, or do they follow up a victory? 121. Is it likely that a knowledge of the arts, culture, &c. of other tribes has been spread by means of war? 122. To what extent has the increase of the population been checked by war? 123. Has migration been promoted to any great extent by warlike expeditions? 124. Are scalps or heads taken? and how preserved?

No. XLIII --- HUNTING. By Col. A. LANE FOX [from page 78]

There has always been a close connexion between war and the chase; and many of the questions relating to the former will apply to this section. It is generally admitted that all races have passed through a stage of existence in which they were dependent on hunting almost entirely for their food. The hunting-practices of savages are therefore of great interest in tracing the origin of customs and institutions which may have survived in a more advanced state of culture. Endeavour should be made to trace the process by which tribes, in a hunting phase of existence, may have been led gradually to adopt a pastoral, and ultimately to settle down into an agricultural, life [sic]. The various arts and customs necessitated by the life of a hunter should be noticed, especially such as tend to throw light on the relics of prehistoric times. This is, without doubt, one of the most persistent instincts in human nature, and the tendency to relapse into a hunting life is frequently seen in those whose means are such as to free them from the shackles of progressive industry.

1. How are hunting-parties formed in a tribe? 2. Are they identical with war-parties? 3. What honours are awarded to successful hunters? 4. Under whose command are the parties organized and conducted? 5. What hours of the day or night are employed for this purpose? 6. How is the possession of a carcase decided? does it belong to the killer or to the owner of the weapon? what rule is there as to the possession of an arrow or other weapon found in the body of an animal? 7. Are arrow-marks used to decide the title to possession? 8. How are the spoils divided amongst the tribe? and what are the rights of the non-hunting portion of the community? 9. How are disputes respecting the possession of game settled? 10. What are the seasons for hunting different animals? 11. Any laws or customs for the preservation of game? 12. How are the hunting-grounds arranged between the neighbouring tribes? 13. Are the regulations on this head respected? or are they a constant source of dispute and war? 14. Are the migrations of the tribe influenced by the habits of the animals they hunt? 15. After a successful hunting-expedition do they feed until they are gorged? 16. Are any hospitalities given on the occasion? 17. Is there any evidence of feasts having arisen in this way? 18. What are their methods of preserving meat? 19. To whom do the skins and horns belong? 20. Is any tribute paid in game? 21. What ceremonies or dances are practised on setting out or returning from a hunting-expedition? 22. What omens or superstitions have they in connexion with hunting? 23. To what deity do they attribute success in hunting? 24. How do they approach and capture the different animals? 25. What precautions are taken against being scented by them? 26. Do they evince an accurate knowledge of the habits of animals? 27. What means do they employ for deceiving game? -- a, by dressing up in the skins of animals? b, by imitating calls and other noises? c, by smell? d, by colours? e, by decoys? f, by cunning appeals to any other of their senses or instincts? 28. Do they drive game? 29. Do they use nets in driving or capturing game? how are they constructed, and of what materials? 30. Any use of palings or trenches in driving or capturing game? 31. Give drawings of any pitfalls used. 32. Snares. 33. Any use of a spring-trap, consisting of a lane attached to an elastic stem, by which the animal is transfixed? If so, give sketches of all the varieties employed, and of any other traps, with the baits used. 34. Describe accurately the weapons employed in the chase 35. Are they the same employed for war? 36. Are any of them also used as tools for different purposes? 37. At what distances do they use their weapons with effect against different animals? 38. Can they hit a bird on the wing? 39. Any use of bird-bolts or blunt-headed arrows for stunning animals without damaging their skins? 40. Any use of arrows with two or more points? 41. Are arrows with different-shaped heads carried in the same quiver, and used for different animals? 42. Is any record kept of game killed? 43. Are fires employed to drive game? 44. Are dogs or other animals employed in hunting? what birds are used in hawking, fishing, &c? 45 Are they trained to any special functions? 46. By whom are they kept and controlled? 47. Are horses used in hunting? 48. How is the game carried on an expedition? 49. Is there much waste? 50. Is it a reproach to wound without capturing an animal? 51. Describe the different modes of fishing 52. Describe all the varieties of fish-spears used 53. Fish-forks 54. Dams 55. Weirs 56. Are arrows used for fishing, and with or without detachable heads? 57. Is any connexion of form observable between the harpoon-head and the fish-hook? 58. Describe the varieties of fish-hooks used 59. Harpoons. 60. Fish-nets 61. Fish-traps 62. How are fish preserved and cured? 63. Are they preserved alive in ponds? 64. Are captured animals ever preserved alive? and, if so, under what arrangements? 65. Any use of the lasso or other similar contrivance? 66. Is the milk of any wild animal used? and if so, how obtained? 67. If the tribe has no knowledge of agriculture, state what wild fruit, roots, or grasses are eaten, and how prepared. 68. Are the children instructed in hunting? and at what age do they commence? 69. Are the women employed in hunting or fishing? 70. To what extent are firearms employed in hunting? and how long have they been in use? 71. Are they expert in the use of them? 72. Are poisoned weapons used in hunting? and what are the ingredients of the poison? 73. If so, do they cut out the wound before eating the animal? 74. Are any records of hunting feats preserved? and how?

No. LVII -- GAMES AND AMUSEMENTS. By Col. A. LANE FOX [from page 94]

Describe the games played by men, women, boys, girls.

[It is useful to play European games with children to see if they are recognized.]

1. What games are international? 2. What games are noticed among animals? and are any imitated from animals? 3. Describe the toys used by men, women, boys, girls 4. Describe any games of ball played, and give drawings of the implements employed. 5. Describe any gambling games, and give drawings of any marks, holes, notches, figures, or numbers upon dice, sticks, bones, or cards?

6. Are high stakes played for? 7. Are wives, children, or slaves staked? 8. Does suicide often result from gambling? 9. Are games of chance or physical exercise preferred? 10. Are any games considered manly or the reverse? 11. What animals are used in game-fighting? 12. Are they preserved and trained for the purpose? 13. Describe any spurs, defences, or other objects that are attached to them. 14. Are any omens relied upon for success in gambling? or any superstitions connected with the games?

15. Describe any theatricals in force amongst the people, with the masks, dresses, scenes, &c. employed 16. What is the character of the performances? are they comic, tragic, elevated, or obscene? Have any of them a religious character? 17. Are there special actors? or do all take part in them? 18. Are the orations prepared or impromptu? 19. Are they historical or relating to passing events? 20. Do men, women, boys, and girls act? 21. Do boys dress and act the part of women? 22. Describe any dances performed for amusement 23. Describe any juggling-tricks; and ascertain, if possible, how they are performed 24. Are animals employed in any of these performances?

25. Describe any foot-races that are run, horse-races, boat-races &c. with the distances and prizes 26. Feats of agility, climbing, boxing, and wrestling 27. Describe any games of stone-throwing, weapon-throwing, and arrow-shooting, with the distances and the size of the mark aimed at 28. Describe any weapons used on these occasions, and state whether they are used for amusement only, or for war as well 29. Are rats, birds, or other animals shot for amusement? 30 Aquatic sports, such as swimming-matches, shooting rapids, jumping from heights, diving, &c. 31. Equestrian feats, jumping on and off, standing up, shooting, jumping through hoops, &c.

32. Note any of the foregoing sports that are unknown amongst the people. 33. What sites are selected for the sports -- natural rocks, hollows, hill-tops, &c.?

No. LXV -- CIRCUMCISION. By Col. LANE FOX. [from page 107]

The practice of circumcision prevails, or has prevailed, in parts of Asia, Africa, and America, being confined chiefly to the equatorial and southern regions of the globe. It is undoubtedly of great antiquity, and was described as an ancient custom even in the time of Herodotus. So peculiar and painful a custom appears less likely to have arisen independently in different centres than others for which ordinary causes can be assigned; and it will therefore be of interest to trace all the varieties of the custom as it is practised amongst different tribes and races, and to record the reasons given for it at the present time or in the past history of the people.

1. Does the custom prevail at the present time? or is it known to have existed in times past? 2. Is it known, though not practised? and is it spoken of as a barbarous custom when practised by others? 3. Is it performed upon males or females? 5. Does the custom in regard to males and females appear to have the same or a different origin? 6. Who performs the operation on the different sexes -- old women, priests, or midwives? 7. Is the position of circumcisor considered especially honourable? 8. Is it illegal after a certain age? 9. Is the part held with any special instrument? 10. Is any special knife or scissors used for the purpose? 11. Is it performed with a knife of flint or stone? and what is the reason given for this? 12. What is the part cut off in males? ditto in females? 13. Is it fully performed? or is it only a vestige of the custom? 14. Are any other incisions made upon the body at the same time? what is their meaning? Give drawings of them 15. Does this apply to males and females alike? 16. What is done with the parts cut off? 17. Any special custom with respect to the blood? 18. Is any godfather or godmother appointed? 19. Is a name given to the person at the time or subsequently? 20. Is any particular dress worn on the occasion? 21. Is the person to be circumcised lead upon a horse, ass or mule? 22. Is any thing done to heal the wound? 23. For how long is the circumcised person exempt from labour? 24. With what other ceremonies does it appear to be especially connected? 25. Are any lustration practices especially associated with it? 26. Is it considered a religious duty, a law, or only a custom? 27. Does happiness in a future state depend on it? 28. Is there any tradition respecting it? 29. Can its origin be traced to any other tribe, race, or locality? 30. What is the recognized name for it? 31. Is it ever performed after death? 32. Is there any reason to suppose it was established as an offering of part of the organ of generation to the deity? 33. What is the reason now assigned for it? 34. Is it supposed to prevent disease, or to preserve cleanliness? 35. Is it effectual for this purpose? 36. Is it considered to render marriage prolific? 37. Is any special seat set apart for the operator or the circumcised, or for an imaginary personage or deity? 38. Is the operation ever dispensed with for fear of deterring proselytes? 39. Is it performed by all classes alike? 40. Is it in full force or dying out? 41 Is it in any way connected with Phallic worship?

No. LXXII - DRAWING. By Col. A. LANE FOX [from page 118]

Great difference is observable in the capacity for drawing shown by different races. Thus the Esquimaux are comparatively skilful draughtsmen, whilst the Australians, as a rule, have but little knowledge of it. Amongst the relics found in the caves of Périgord, in France, life-like representations of animals have been discovered, whilst the rock-engravings of South America represent figures so grotesque as scarcely to be recognized. Care should, however, be taken to distinguish between the true representative art, however rude, which is the best attempt of natives to depict the objects truthfully, and conventionalized symbols, which are merely based upon the forms of nature. These, although of the utmost interest, come more properly under the head of writing or ornamentation, and must not be confounded with the former. The three branches, drawing, writing, and ornamentation, spring from a common centre; and the traveller should make it his best endeavour to classify the rock sculptures, carvings, and drawings of savages under one or other of these headings, assigning to each its true signification.

1. Have the natives a natural aptitude for drawing? 2. Do they draw animals in preference to other subjects? 3. Are the most conspicuous features, such as the head, nose, &c., generally exaggerated? 4. Have they the least knowledge of perspective? 5. Are the more distant objects drawn smaller than those nearer? 6. Are the more important personages or objects drawn larger than the others? 7. Do their drawings represent imaginary animals or animals now extinct? 8. Do they evince a tendency to introduce uniformity into the representation of irregular objects, such as trees, so as to produce a symmetrical pattern? 9. Are the drawings a. historical (XVIII) b. religious (XXX); c. obscene; d. symbolical or hieroglyphic (LXXI); e ornamental (LXXIII); f badges or tribal marks, heraldic (LXIV) g copies from nature h imaginative designs; i topographical; k scribbles to occupy idle time, without any definite meaning? 10. Are events of different periods depicted in the same drawing? 11. Have they any conventional modes of representing certain objects? 12. Do they draw from nature, or copy each other's drawings? 13. Do they, in copying from one another, vary the designs through negligence, inability, or other causes, so as to lose sight of the original objects, and produce conventional forms the meaning of which is otherwise inexplicable? if so, it would be of great interest to obtain series of such drawings, showing the gradual departure from the original designs. 14. Do they readily understand European drawings? 15. Do they show any aptitude in copying European designs? 16. What are the materials usually employed for drawing? and with what tools are the carvings and engravings made? 17. What colours are employed, and how are they obtained? 18. Have they special artists to draw for the whole tribe, or does each man draw his own designs? 19. Is there much difference in the degree of talent shown by men of the same tribe? 20. Is drawing more practised in some tribes of the same race than others? and, if so, does this rise from inclination or traditional custom? 21. Do they draw maps or plans? 22. Do they understand European maps? 23. Have they any notion of drawing to scale? 24. Do they improve much by practise? 25. At what age do children commence drawing? are they encouraged to draw at an early age? (A series of native drawings by children of different ages, from five or six upwards, would be interesting as a means of comparison with the development of artistic skill in Europeans.) 26 Have they any knowledge of shading? with what colours are the shadows made? and are they correctly placed?

Notes and Queries 1874 page 120-121

No. LXXIII -- Ornamentation. By Col. A. LANE FOX [from page 120]

Nothing is more persistent than the various patterns of ornamentation in use by the different tribes and races of mankind, and nearly all have some historical continuity by means of which they can be traced in their varieties to different nations. Nearly every uncivilized nation has a pattern of its own, or some two or three patterns, which are repeated continually in all their ornamental designs with but slight variation. They may be classed under three heads:- 1st, incised lines and geometrical patterns; 2ndly, coils and scrolls; and 3rdly, conventionalized representations of animal and vegetable forms applied to ornamentation. Thus the ornamentation of Australia is confined chiefly to incised lines, punch-marks, and geometrical patterns, which also prevail over the greater part of the Polynesian Islands. The continuous looped coil is much used in Assam and Cochin China, but is unknown in China, where it is replaced by lines of broken coils and frets; and broken coil patterns constitute the prevailing feature in the ornamentation of New Guinea and New Zealand. The continuous looped coil was the principal ornament of the bronze age in Scandinavia, and is used at the present time on the west coast of Africa, where it is an exception to the prevailing geometrical ornamentation of the African continent. The continuous coil ornament developed into the wave pattern and into the fret, which is used in Europe, China, and Peru, and in a modified form is still seen in the designs from South America and Marquesas. On the other hand, the ornamentation of the New Irelanders may be taken as an instance of the third class of ornamentation, consisting of an infinite variety of patterns, all derived from the representation of a human face; or that of the north-west coast of America, where patterns derived from the head and beak of the albatros monopolize the entire system of ornamentation amongst the Ahts and neighbouring tribes. In order to trace the history of the patterns, it is desirable that travellers should delineate as accurately as possible all the varieties of ornamental design amongst the races visited, especially those by which a sequence can be determined. Instances in which forms originally serving a useful purpose have survived in ornamentation are extremely common; such as, the binding of a spear or arrow-head represented by painted spirals, representations of string used to carry vessels, or the parts of an extinct form of weapon or tool retained in the ornamentation of those which succeeded it. These should be figured wherever they are found, and their origin show, as they afford useful links in tracing the development of the arts.

Notes and Queries 1874 page 122-123

The following are some of the principal forms of ornamentation employed by savages. [see pages 120-121, 122-123 illustrations]

1. Circular dots or punch-marks.
2. Elliptical punch-marks
3. Bands
4. Chevrons
5. Herring-bone
6. Parallel incised lines
7. Cross-lines or chequer
8. Crosses
9. St Andrew's cross
10. Egyptian cross
11. Lines of triangles, which may be filled with any of the foregoing ornaments
12. Lozenge patterns
13. Double triangle
14. Pentacle
15. Fylfot
16. Contiguous or detached circles
17. Concentric circles
18. Plain coil
19. Reversed coil
20. Loop coil
21. Continuous loop coil
22. Fret derived from 21
23. Broken or branching coils derived from 21
24. Broken frets derived from 22
25. Wave pattern derived from 21
26. Scrolls
27. Plait ornament or guilloche
28. Basketwork ornaments
29. Rope pattern or spiral
30. Impression produced by twisted cords or thongs

31. Note any of the foregoing, that are not known, or any that are omitted here, and give the varieties of each

32. What combinations of colours are used? are tertiaries (citrine, russet, olive), secondaries (orange, purple, green), or only primaries (yellow, red, and blue) employed? and in what proportions? 33. Are white, black, or neutral grounds used? 34. Is colour used to assist light and shade? 35. What is their idea of contrast, proportions and harmony? 36. Are the details of ornamentation subordinate to the general forms and outlines? 37. Are conventionalized representations of flowers, trees, and branches employed? 38. Do the lines and curves radiate from a parent stem. 39. Are the junctions of lines and curves tangential to one another? 40. What is the effect aimed at in the ornamentation? 41. What objects are ornamented - houses, weapons, clothes, furniture &c.? 42. Is filigree work used? 43. Is enamelling known? if so, describe the process.

No. LXXXIII.-- STONE IMPLEMENTS. By Col. A. LANE FOX [from page 132]

The study of the stone implements of modern savages is of interest as a means of explaining the uses and mode of fabricating those of prehistoric times.

1. What is the mode of cutting stone when metal is not employed? is sand-string or another stone employed for this purpose? 2. In what manner are holes bored in stone, and with what materials? 3. Describe the mode of grinding or polishing the surfaces; and of what materials are the rubbers employed for this purpose? 4. Describe the implements used in flaking, and the mode of holding the stones whilst flaking them. 5. What means are taken to procure long thin flakes? are the stones pressed against the thigh whilst flaking them, or are they bound round tightly so as to increase the line of least resistance to the blow of the flaker? 6. What are the uses of the different forms of stone implements employed? 7. In what manner are they hafted? and with what materials are they bound on to their handles? 8. What materials are employed for the different kinds of stone implements? and where are they procured? 9. What length of time do they take in fabricating the several implements. 10. How long do they continue in use? 11. What becomes of them when they are disused? 12. Are any of them used in the hand without handles? 13. Note and describe the effect of wear upon their edges, and the marks of abrasion where the handles have been fastened on; and observe the manner in which these marks are produced. 14. Note the length of time taken to fabricate the different objects with stone implements. 15. Are there special fabricators of stone implements, or does each man make his own? 16. Are there any implements which are valued as specimens of the skill of the fabricator? 17. Are small flakes chipped off by pressure or by striking? 18. What is the use of serrated edges? 19. How are scrapers made? 20. Are arrow-heads used as knives in carving? 21. In cutting bone or wood, are flakes used with a sawing or cutting motion? 22. How are small holes, such as the eyes of needles, bored with flint 23. Are flints used for striking lights? and are any particular forms of flint carried for this purpose? what other materials are used with the flints for this purpose? 24. Are flints or stones kept in water before working them? or do they undergo any other process before they are worked into implements? 25. Are the natural forms of stones and flints ever used as implements 26. Give the native names of all the different part of implements and materials employed 27. Is the form of a knife or an arrow-head much influenced by accidents of fracture during fabrication? 28. To what extent are the different forms designed for special purposes, or merely the result of fashion? 29. Do the several forms of implements pass into one another by varieties, or are the different types well marked and distinct? 30. Are stone implements left as heirlooms? 31. Are there any superstitious usages associated with any of them? 32. Since the introduction of metal, are stone implements still used for religious purposes, mutilations of the body, or any other purpose? 33. Are metal implements made in imitation of the stone ones formerly employed? 34. Are stone implements used as a medium of exchange in lieu of money? (See also No. XIX ARCHAEOLOGY) 35. Are they regarded as thunderbolts, and supposed to have fallen from the skies? 36. Are they used as amulets?

No. XC. -- NATURAL FORMS. By Col. LANE FOX [from page 136]

In the infancy of the arts mankind must have availed themselves of the natural forms of the objects met with; and as the process of adapting and modifying them to their wants has been slow and continuous, traces of the forms of nature have been preserved in those arts which are indigenous and have remained isolated. When, on the other hand, they have been derived from civilized races, or have degenerated from a more advanced state, the more complex forms of the higher civilization become conventionalized, and are frequently retained in an altered condition after the knowledge of their original uses has been lost. It is desirable, therefore, to pay attention to the forms of the objects constructed by savages, with the view of ascertaining to what extent they approximate to the natural forms of the materials employed, and to note those objects in which the natural forms have been little or not at all changed.

1. Do the clubs and other weapons approximate to the natural forms of the stems, roots, or branches of trees? 2. Are the curves the natural curves of the branches? and do they follow the grain of the wood? 3. Are the natural forms of stones employed as hammers, mace-heads, or for other purposes? 4. Are gourds, shell-fruit, sea-shells, human or other skulls employed as drinking-vessels? 5. Are the forms of these closely imitated in pottery? 6. Are gourds, reeds, bones, skulls, sinews, and root-fibres employed in musical instruments? 7. Are the skins of animals or bark of trees much altered in clothing? 8. Are the skins of animals flayed off the body with one one incision employed as water-vessels, bagpipes, pouches or bellows? 9. Are the head-skins of animals, with the ears and mane, employed as head-dresses, or the skins of horned or prickled fish? 10. Are any of them copied in artificial head-dresses? 11. For what purpose is the bamboo used -- tubes, drinking-vessels, baskets, rings, &c.? 12. Are shells, teeth, claws, seeds, bones, beetles' wings, vertebrae of snakes, and other natural objects employed as personal ornaments? 13. Are any of these copied in metal for the same purpose? if so give drawings of them 14. Are the defences of animals employed in artificial defences -- tusks or horns as spears? sawfish-blades as swords? teeth, claws, split reeds, or blade of the sting-ray as arrow-points? crocodiles' backs as breast-plates or shields? scales of the pangolin as scale-armour? 15. Are any of these copied in metal? if so, give drawings. 16. Are the thorns or spines of trees employed as barbs, awls, pins, needles, or for other piercing-purposes? 17. Is a plough used, consisting of a tree-stem, with a branch as a share? 18. Are trees or skins used as boats, the people sitting outside? 19. Are caves, rock-shelters, or tree-tops used as dwellings? 20. Can the use of these be traced in the architecture of the people? 21. Are leaves used for roofing?

See here for the Pitt-Rivers' contributions to the 1892 edition.

Transcribed by AP November 2011

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