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Rolleston papers, Ashmolean Museum: 

Transcription of documents which relate to the development of museum anthropology at Oxford: 

[Please note that transcriptions of GR.8.6.6, Correspodence A-Z and Moseley related correspondence is in a separate file]

[Page 1]
Received from the Rev'd W.G. Lawes of Port Moresby for 25 [pound sign] 1877
Bird skins 53 + 1 head
Skin of Bats (Pteropi) 5
(of these one kept for Univ)
Skin of mammals 8
of these 3 ... one small two large & 1 ... for Univ Museum)
& 4 .... left
1 Reptile skin
Pot fragments
2 Head Dress
3 Kangaroos [insert] Skins [end insert] in spirit
1 Echidna Lawsonii
4 Rats  )
3 .... )
3 Bats ) fit for Dissect.
1 Perameles
1 jar of lizards
2 insects
of the Birds I disposed to Canon Tristo... all except for [pound sign] 12.10
            [Pound sign]    [sh]
Manncod aton     0        5
Pitta  nova Guinea            8
Microp... Goliath    2        12
Strix delicat...                5
Tana .... galatea 2.1.
Retained for ourselves          13.2.6
Received from Canon Trist        12.10
Leaving a surplus of            3.2.6
Paid to Mrs Lawes per cheque Jan. 4. 1878

[On side there is a letter page headed 'Anatomical Department, Museum, Oxford] glued on which is similar to above list but breaks down cost between headings including 2.6 for pottery and ruddle [each] and 10/- for 2 headdresses]

[Page 2 blank]
[Page 3 notes on New Guinea zoology]
[Page 4 blank]

[Page 5]
On the Geology of New Guinea .... [includes transcriptions of 2 letters from Lawes about zoological specimens]
[Page 6 blank]

Page 7
Has been spending time at Keripuna [?] 3 times before
Letter from Rev W.G. Lawes Feb 14 1877 Keripuna: first native village which I have [insert] ever [end insert] seen in the South Seas or New Guinea the houses are large and well built, the streets and squares kept well swept & clean, the gardens carefully worked, and in some of them flowers cultivated. They have regular ... building-yards on the back & ... [illegible] stone axes, tools not to be despised. In ... out a canoe the workmen stand 2 by 2 calling each other and kept time in ... strokes so that one pair of adzes was always in the wood as I watched them from the deck they looked just like the workmen in the old Egyptian figures only a deal plumper
One's ideas of tropical vegetation are often sadly disappointed in tropical countries, but here at least they are realized In the bush on the opposite side to the village it luxuriates in great profusion. There are the wild mango and chestnut, the noble Breadfruit, the reedlike betel palm, the pandanus in several forms, bananas with their cool shade, variegated crotons, ... [3 words illegible] creepers festooning every tree, orchids in great variety, over all the waving cocoa nut palm & under all a rich carpet of ferns

[Page 8 and on blank or zoological notes]

[Page 24]
Transcription of letter from Lawes 22 Jan 1876 discussing burial customs of the Motu
Transcription of letter from Lawes Feb 14 1877

Page 25
Cutting from newspaper about Gold discoveries in New Zealand mentioning Lawes [newspaper and date not added]

[Page 26]
Notes by d'Alberti about New Guiea

[Page 27]
Letter from Rev W.G. Lawes May 4 1877
The specimens of carving are from Oro... Bay Where are they
You will understand I know that I have no wsh to make money I am only too glad to be able to send you any thing I may bet which may be of any value to you but any thing which you do not care for but which would be of value to the British Museum or elsewhere perhaps you would kindly point out to Mrs Lawes or dispose of for us.
I feel some delicacy in writing about payment for these things but I know you do not wish me to be at any expense for them. I have reckoned up my expenses (many of the Birds I have paid our native teachers for,  all the curiosities I  have bought from the natives & altogether s sum of about 25 [pound sign] would cover everything and leave a small balance [illegible] on with If the Collection is not worth the above mentioned sum I beg you will think no more about it.

[Note about bottom apparently relating to something else]
These bird I have put in Mr Rowell's hands May 16 1878 to see which he would wish to have for the museum
The other things amounting to [pound sign] 13.2.6 I have at present to get from museum has not charged for

[Page 28] Zoological notes

[Page 29-30 blank]
Box GR/B/1

Barrows Dorset
[insert on top in pencl] Fordington Field Barrow [end insert]

Dorchester July 24 1880
Dear Sir
As August is approaching I must send a line to ask if you & General Lane Fox are likely to come here to open the Long Barrow so I think I have plenty of matter respecting the British inhabitants of this neighbourhood to interest you in addition. If you are writing to the General wd. you kindly get his permission for me to make a few excavations on the hill above the Cerne Giant. I believe it is his property. The Dorset Field Club meet at Cerne next month & I wish to have some information for them of course I get the tenant's permission & make all good again.
I am Dear Sir
Yrs truly
Ed. Cunnington
George Rolleston Esq M.D. &c  &c

[this seems to follow earlier correspondence between Cunnington and Rolleston regarding Fordington Field Barrow and other Dorset barrows]
Box GR/B/4

Archaeological Finds Sussex
'As regards the two collections of Bones [insert] and shells [end insert] examined by me from Caesar's Camp & Mount Caburn respectively. I have to say that they agree with each other in the following points
They both consist of domestic as opposed to wild mammals, and of some few skulls which must have been used for food, oysters, whelks cockle [insert] limpet [end insert] and mussel. With these are mixed up in great abundance Helix asp... [illegible] & [illegible] and Cyclostornia [illegible] in less quantity; these shells having possibly found their way into the pits accidentally.
[Followed by rough notes by Rolleston]
[Then a "List of bags of bones sent to Professor Rolleston' written by Lane Fox]

[Then series of notes on Cissbury by Rolleston regarding skeletal remains, one dated April 1878, another April 5 1878, including drawings of strat. layers, some notes by J. Park Harrison and also letters from Charles Kelly]

Box GR/B/5

This shows something of the makepiece way collections were collected, and also the attitudes of the Oxford University and Ashmolean Museums to acquiring collections prior to 1874.


Letter 1
New College
30 Oct 1874
Dear Mr Vice-Chancellor
Do you think that the University would be willing to pay out a small sum on the purchase of a collection of remains from the Swiss lake-dwellings. There are a few flint implements &c in the Ashmolean, and a few at the Museum, but it seems that the Ashmolean has no funds, and that the Museum, if it has funds, might perhaps reasonably demur to expenditure on things which are rather of historical than of scientific interest. But as the opportunity to which I refer may be lost by any long delay, I venture to lay the matter directly before you.
When I was at Berne in September I was shown by a Swiss friend the very large collection of objects found on the sites of ancient lake dwellings, which has been proved [?found] by the Bernese Government, and was also taken by him to one of the stations now being explored. My friend, who is an officer of Engineers, has been for some time employed by the government to …. [illegible] these explorations and he told me that the government were desirous of selling a portion of what has been found. Most of the dwellings are of the stone-age, a few only of the bronze, and it is believed that all of the bronze age have been already thoroughly researched. A complete collection of articles of the stone age, including all sorts of implements made of chipped flints, polished stone, and horn, bones of animals, grains of various sorts, and some few specimens of the rudest pottery could be purchased for about £15. Those of the bronze age, including various metal implements and very interesting pottery, besides bones &c as above, being rarer, are rather more expensive, and the reason for not delaying is that the supply of these bronze age things is so limited that they may be ….. [illegible] I should think that £50 would purchase a very complete collection of specimens of all that is to be found within Swiss Lake Dwellings. The Bernese government seeks, as I understand, merely to repay itself for the cost of the explorations, M. von Fellenberg, [1] the friend I refer to, was very anxious that the University of Oxford should possess a collection, & promised me that he would take care that we should have the best things left, and I am confident that his good will is to be relied on, if the University thinks fit to make the investment.
Yours very truly
Hereford B. George [2]

[1] Edmund von Fellenberg (1838-1902) apparently carried out work on Lake Bienne
[2] Hereford Brooke George, (1838-1910) first editor of the Alpine Journal [the journal of the Alpine Club of London], it concerns itself with mountaineering. New College history tutor from 1872 to 1891. See It is not clear why letters from him should be in the Rolleston archive.

Letter 2
New College
2 Nov 1874
Dear Mr Vice-Chancellor
I am not aware of any one in Oxford who has seen the Berne collections except myself, nor do I know of any expert in the subject here speaking from my own imperfect knowledge, I think there can be no real doubt that the collections are what I have said, & contain specimens of everything discovered within lake dwellings of the stone age, and a great deal of the bronze age. But of course, if the Council thought the subject worth attention, it would not be difficult to obtain completed opinions as to their value. I would venture to suggest that the question whether the University might not fairly spend a small sum on the purchase of such relics if one great stage of human history might be laid before the Council, and if the Council is of opinion that it would be reasonable assuming that my representation is correct, that then further advice might be obtained before going to Convocation for a grant of money.
Yours very truly
Hereford B. George

[Presumably the case now went to Council who decided to ask Rolleston to find expert advice]

Letter 3
19 Nov 1874
My dear Rolleston
I understand, from your letter, that the University has an offer, from the Bernese government, of a part of the collection of stone & bronze articles, made by Major von Fellenberg during the course of exploration on the sites of Lake Dwellings, within the limits of that Canton. You say that this series can be had for about £50.
It is, of course, quite impossible to say whether the collection is worth that sum, without seeing either the things themselves, or a list of them. But, under the circumstances of the offer, it is probable that the sum asked is not beyond the value of the articles. I think this University would be wise to buy the collection, for more reasons than one. It is most important, in the first place, that the University should possess, as far as possible, adequate collections, illustrating the various periods, into which, at present, what are called Prehistoric Times, are divided. Without such collections, it is impossible that Archaeology, which now, & justly claims, to be a Science, & one of no mean importance, can be studied in a satisfactory way.
If it is di…able [illegible] to form such collections as I have referred to, then no places have afforded such valuable series as the Pfahlbauten, [1] both on account of the distinct periods during which they have been occupied, (one having existed through an age when nothing but stone or bone was in use, whilst another was not in [insert] existence [end insert] until bronze had superceded stone for weapons & implements, as also from their providing the entire belongings of a number of families.
It would, I think, be desirable not to pass by this offer because such a chance may not occur again. I know from my own experience as a collector, that, as, indeed might naturally be looked for, stone & bronze things from the Lake Dwellings are becoming much more difficult to obtain every day, the supply is not so large as it was at one time, & the number of persons collecting such articles is rapidly increasing.
There is another matter, which, as I am writing about collections suggests itself, that is, the necessity there is for some better place for Anthropological collections, in their various series, being provided than the Ashmolean. The space there is so limited, that its contents have become too crowded to allow of being properly exhibited, or classed in any scientific way. Would it be possible to add to the Existing building at the New Museum, in another …ing [illegible] in which the collection at the Ashmolean might be placed, & where Archaeological Anthropology might have ample room. If there was such a receptacle I have no doubt that numerous articles would be given to the University, which are now withheld because there is no place in which to exhibit them properly.
The University had done so much in other Scientific branches, that one would hope Archaeology will speedily be provided with this essential requisite for its successful study.
Believe me
Yrs … [illegible]
W. Greenwell

[1] Pile structures

Letter 4 is a supportive letter from AW Franks to Rolleston dated 19.11.1874
Letter 5 is a supportive letter from John Ed… of Caerleon [illegible]
Letter 6 is a supportive letter from John Prestwich, who says he is seeking John Evans view of the value of such a collection
Letter 7 is a supportive letter from a French illegible person, in French

Final [copy rather than original] letter dated 26 May 1875 to Rolleston refers to possible acquisition of a Denmark series of stone tools and says:

… I think, unless there is a prospect of the Ashmolean coming to the New Museum in a reasonable time, it might not be unwise to spend a small sum, say £15 or £20 in getting a typical series of stone implements from Denmark. Having the Swiss series, some other representatives of the same period, from other countries, appear to be necessary if the former are to be of use, and it is always well to bring these things into near juxtaposition, which cannot be the case if some are in the New Museum and others in the Ashmolean. What do you think? If you are to have a Professor of Archaeology there would be no harm done by having duplicates, for he might use one set for the purposes of his lectures.
[unfortunately the signature is illegible it could be James WG?]

[There is a catalogue of the items from the Swiss Lake Dwellings, so they obviously did buy them, also accounts of their costs, I think they must have gone to the Ashmolean GR/B/5/2]
Box GR/B/6


Marlborough House,
Pall Mall
3 August 1869, from Herbert Fisher [1] to George Rolleston:
'Dr Acland, whom I saw yesterday, informs me that the mummy which the Prince of Wales is desirous of presenting to the University of Oxford will be acceptable in the Ethnological Department of the Museum.
I write a line to say that it will therefore be forwarded at once addressed to you and I enclose the description kindly written by Mr [Bush] of the British Museum.'
Further letter re the mummy, saying it has been sent, date unclear
Further letter confirming Rolleston’s description of the mummy is appropriate, August 1869
[Note: This 'proves' that ethnographic objects were accessioned into the OUMNH from its beginnings, in other words anthropology and ethnography were accepted parts of the Natural History or natural sciences' endeavour. It is also clear that Archaeological and Egyptian material was also accessioned freely into the Museum despite similar collections also being acquired by the Ashmolean Museum.]
[1] Herbert William Fisher (1826-1903) was private secretary to Edward VII when he was Prince of Wales from 1862.

Cambridge. Mass.
Gone Hall Oct. 2 1879
My dear Professor Rolleston,
When you kindly shewed me over your museum in Oct. 1877 I told you I wd. try to see if I cd. add something to your coll’n of N. American Indian stone implements. I have been mindful of my promise. A few weeks since a lady asked me where she cd. bestow such a collect’n wh. had been formed by her son Isaac Appleton Warden, [2] a young fellow of much promise, who died a few years since at Nice. [1] I thought of you. Dr Acland has kindly consented to take charge of the box, & I have sent it on board the Cunard steamer at Parthia marked for him, as he is to take passage in her on the 4th. He wrote me a few days since from Baltimore, where he had been ill & there is a possibility of his not reaching Boston in time to take this steamer on Saturday. In that case she may carry the case over without him & if you know of its destinat’n, you might reclaim it from the agents in Liverpool. Hence I write to you, as it may chance I shall not see Dr Acland again. The lady who gives the Collect’n is Mrs Elizabeth B. Warden, Kingston, Mass. [3] Her son formed the collect’n in 1872-75, finding the objects in Kingston. This town is a part of the old town of Plymouth, Mass. where the English first settled (Mayflower pilgrims) in 1620. They found the region hereabouts nearly depopulated of Aborigines, a scourge having carried them off a few years previously. Large numbers of these implements have been found from time to time in this same town of Kingston, & they seem to indicate a large populat’n there at an earlier period. The Indians f’m the interior had a practice of coming to the coast at times in the fishing season, & this may have been a favourite region with them, as a fresh water stream runs into the bay at this point. In turning the soil recently to make a new road across the same pastures considerable numbers of these implements were found, & I saw this summer an uncommonly fine specimen of a stone axe, turned up by the plough in preparing a kitchen garden last spring.
We were very glad to see Dr Acland here: we have felt grieved that his health has not been wholly equal to the hard work of our American travelling.
If you desire to acknowledge the receipt of these relics, I shall be glad to convey to Mrs Warden any communicat’n you may forward to me.
Yours very truly
Justin Winsor [4]
Prof Rolleston
Oxford Museum.
[1] The collection is now in the Pitt Rivers Museum (1887.1.76, 1887.1.85–92, 1887.1.447–468, 2009.95.1).
[2] Isaac Appleton Warden (1858-by 1879) son of Elizabeth Warden qv.
[3] Elizabeth Beal Warden (?-1888), mother of Isaac Appleton Warden. Warden archives see
[4] Justin Winsor (1831-1897) Writer, librarian and historian see

GR/B/6/6 see here

[Page 1]
Hittite Axe procured by Wm. St Chad Boscawen Esq
District near Lake of Antioch from Tell is Plain
as reported
For Report of Paper by Professor Sayce see Illustrated London News Nov 20 1880
[Pages 2, 3, 4 blank]

Page 1
W. [insert] St. C [end insert] Boscawen Esq. March Wick Rectory Wrexham
Found in plain of Antioch, in one of the mounds to the N.E. of Lake of Antioch in a district of which Carchmish Arpad & Hamath were the principal cities in the land of the old Hittites.
The whole of country abounds [?] with mounds arranged so as to be visible one from another and extending from Carchamish to Sea Coast Others found at 35” – 40” below ground At Carchamish [2 words illegible] of river type and of Haematite. This probably sacrificial 4£-5£

Page 2
[Letter stuck in upside down]
Dr Sir
Just a line to send note about the axe but the pressure of work almost drove it out of my head. I shall be glad if [insert] when [end insert] you have the photos I could have a copy as I want to show them at my lecture at the Lond Inst on Dec 13th 1880. Hoping you are well
I am
Yours faithfully
W.SC Boscawen
Professor Rolleston
P.S. Let me know what the stone is

[The other side of the letter is partially visible but the inside has been glued down tho it is clear it is written upon.]
What is visible says:
“Stone axe”
This axe was obtained by me from a native boy who told me it had been found near the lake of Antioch in one of the numerous tells or mounds scattered about the plain. There have been numerous fine flint instruments found in these districts – Some now of small size are in the possession of Dr Bischoff of Aleppo the [sic] came from the mounds in the plain of Aleppo. I also saw several remarkable Haematite punches [drawing] which had been found on the ruins of Scrabblus [?} the ancient Carchemish & too had black stone knives. The weapons were probably in use ... [the bottom of the back page and all the inside cannot be currently read]


[Page 1]
Note of Coins given me by Mrs Vaux March 18 1872
Two coins in a pill box "From H. Hippisley Esq Lamborne"
The large coin probably Trajan, much defaced
The small coin with Wolf and ... head Constantines  He struck off many such on his return from Byzantium to Rome [1887.1.256 – 257]

Coin from Dr Cheadle of Burford
Imp. C(arius_ Allictus G.F. (Priacipis Iilium) Aug Virtus Reg

3 “Coins” for [illegible] a stirrup Iron in Akeman Street Road near Witney  I Westill Esq These are not coins, but merchant stamps with Russian letters on one of them, with the exception of one article which is a much worn upper half penny of the time of William iii
NB Vot Ex is nearly of Constantine time
[Page 1]
A bow with arrows and 2 fans
received from Edward J. Jenkins Esq Trinity College Oxford [1] with accompanying letter in answer to enquiries
[in different hand, not Rolleston’s]
Cadiz House
Dec 27th 1877
Dear Dr Rolleston
With regard to the bow and arrows, all I can tell you is, that my brother [2] procured them from an officer on “H.M.S. Pearl” after the return of that vessel from the islands of Santa Cruz, and consequently after the death of Commodore Goodenough. My brother informed me the tips of the arrows were poisoned, and he believed they were Fijean—I cannot say were [sic] the fans came from, but will endeavour to ascertain: and will also impress upon my numerous relations in Queensland New South Wales and elsewhere the necessity of procuring specimens of the ---- [blank with line]
yours very truly
Edw’d J. Jenkins

[1] Information from Clare Hopkins, Trinity College Archivist, Oxford: [Jenkins] matriculated at Trinity in 1874. He wrote an entry in the Admissions Register giving his full name as Edward Johnstone Jenkins, and stating that he was the second son of Richard Lewis Jenkins, Member of the Royal College of Surgeons of London and that he was born on 24 October 1854 at Wooloomoon, Namoi River, New South Wales and educated at King’s School, Parrametta, also in New South Wales. A register of college members published in 1901 lists Jenkins as BA, DM, MRCP and MRCS, and records that he was then practicing in Sydney. His name appears in the obituary list of 1930/40, where a summary of his career states that he was formerly medical superintendent of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and physician at Sydney Hospital and the Royal Alexandra Hospital, Sydney. It is interesting to think that Jenkins, while presumably continuing his medical studies in Cardiff in 1877, was busy organising his family to collect and send anthropological items to the museum in Oxford.’
Information from
Edward born in 1854 was sent to St Mark's School at Macquarie Fields and then to The King's School under George Fairfowl [sic] Macarthur, where he shone as Captain and Broughton Scholar, winning a scholarship to Trinity College, Oxford to study Medicine.
After a period at St Bartholomew's Hospital London gaining further medical degrees he returned to Sydney in 1884 became Medical Superintendent at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital at Camperdown and then had a private practice in Macquarie Street and was an Honorary Physician at Sydney Hospital.
[2] According to Jenkins had two brothers, Richard and George Jenkins. Richard Lewis Hay Blake Jenkins (1866-1915) was an Australian Imperial Force officer and farmer, see George Henry Vaughan Jenkins (1852-1910) lived at Armidale, he is mentioned here and apparently was a pastoralist and JP in New South Wales and Queensland. One of these must have been the source.

[Page 2 blank]

[Page 3]
[Loose letter]

Cadiz House
Dec 27th 1877
Dear Dr Rolleston
With regard to the bow and arrows, all I can tell you is, that my brother procured them from an officer on “H.M.S. Pearl” after the return of that vessel from the islands of Santa Cruz, and consequently after the death of Commodore Goodenough. My brother informed me the tips of the arrows were poisoned, and he believed they were Fijian—I cannot say where the fans came from, but will endeavour to ascertain: and will also impress upon my numerous relations in Queensland N.S. Wales & elsewhere the necessity of procuring specimens of the Ceratorius Australius [?] aboriginal and native weapons. My luggage consisting of two portmanteaux has been missing for a week: but whilst journeying fr. Reading to this city as all my books and [illegible] material are thus separated fr. their rightful owner, I am in an awkward predicament, and what is very distressing cannot prosecute my studies
yours kind regards
yours very truly
Edw’d J. Jenkins
[Bow cannot be matched
Fans are 1887.1.275-276
Arrows are 2011.106.1-8, 2012.54.1, 2012.98.1]
Note of Antiquities sent to Dr Fiedler of Dresden
i. Saxon urn fr Saucton [?] fairly perfect
ii. Fragments of other urns from same place also Saxon 11 in no.
iii. 7 fragments of roman Samian & grey fr. Frilford
iv. 6 stone implements fr Cape of Good Hope
v. 1 piece of Cape Pottery Journal Ethnolog Society April 1869 p. 51 Journal Anthrop Society Instit. i.i. 1871 6.X.iii

Continental Daily Parcels Express
Max Muller Esq
10 Bismarck Platz

Work by ‘Long Barrow People’ & “Address at Bristol”
[No reference to these in Pitt Rivers Museum object documentation, as you might expect given they were exchanged or donated to Dresden by Rolleston]
[Page 1]
Note of flints given me by J.W. Flower Esq F.G.S.
Gorton i ii [Can’t match]
Castleroy [?][Can’t match]
Santon i ii iii [marked on objects prm]
Elvedon i ii [marked on objects prm]
Brandon i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x [marked on objects prm]
Shrub Hill i [marked on objects prm]
?Drift i ii  [Can’t match]
Drift Norfolk Cast i ii [Can’t match]
Ireland [?] i [Can’t match]
Bisley [?Birling] Sussex  [Can’t match]
Pressigny [marked on objects prm]
Thetford i [marked on objects prm]
Little Ouse [marked on objects prm]
Algeria [marked on objects prm]

147 in total matched
[Front page]
The Medhurst Collection at Bognor [illegible]
Ancient British
4 Large Urns good condition
6 small cup shaped ditto [good condition]
Coins    { 2 Gold Fine condition 1 smooth obverse
    {8 Silver ditto [fine condition]
4 Round finely worked flint sling stones
4 Celts flint polished
10 Red deer horns

Roman Antiquities
Coins    {14 Silver Denarii Fine condition
    {2nd 3rd & 4th [illegible] about 300 some in fine condition
Pottery Samian     {2 Perfect bowls ornamented
            {1 Broken but mended ditto [ornamented]
            {6 other vessels various shapes
All in splendid condition & fine articles
Etruscan terra cotta     {5 various shapes {Same description [insert] condition [end insert]
Fine Blue Black ware
10 may be called drinking cups
15 bottle shaped vessels
28 [or 25?] vases
7 with single handles
[All above] Fine & good condition
8 Lacrymatory various shapes
6 sling bolts with holes through
Red pottery Fine Blue Black {14 cheese dish & saucer shape Fine condition

Bronze 10 celts [drawing] good condition sockets
4 Keys
2 Armillae
60 Fibula various shapes some no doubt Saxon
3 spoons
5 pins & stylus
Bone Pins, combs, needles altogether 25
Iron sword blades, knives & scissors
Skulls human & animal
Jet & Cannel [?] coal ornaments charms &c
Glass Beads & a variety of articles
mahogany cabinet 16 drawers Plate glass flap
about 4 ft high & 3 ft 6 wide

Price of the Collection
£700 or less

[The only Medhurst items in PRM are from founding collection, and most are confirmed as being from that collection by having associated documentation from before 1884, although it is impossible to be sure it seems that these objects may not have been bought, and this might just be the list that was sent to Rolleston as a prospective purchaser.
James Medhurst’s items are also in the founding collection. He died in 1879 and his collection was sold by Sotheby’s on 1-2 June 1879 (and possibly other times). He was said to be of Worthing and Weymouth and certainly the founding collection items contain many from the Weymouth area. The provenance of the above items is not given. Bognor, which is mentioned, is close to Worthing so it may come from there. There does seem to have been a Lavinia Medhurst living in Bognor at about the same time who might be a relative, her family was Sussex based. See and]
[Oxford Union Society headed paper]
[Page 1]
A globular or heartshaped ornament worn by children suspended from the neck and resting on the breast Prop 5.131 “ubi bulla rudi deonissa est aurea collo.” It was of two parts and hollow.
Bulla were made of gold if the parents of the child were patricians or (subsequently) simply of free birth, and of leather if the parents were libertine.
Etruscum puero si contigit aurum
Vil nodus [insert] tantum [end insert] et signum de papere loro Juv. 5.164
Libertinis scortea. Ciscon ad Cic Verr. 1.58
Hinc deductus mos ut praetexta et bulla in usum puerorum nobilium usurparentur ... Alii putant eundem Priscum ... instituisse ... ut patricii bulla aurea cum toga cin purpara praetexitur uterentur, dumtexat illi quorum patres curulem gesserant magistratum (Liv. 26.36 atribute the right to the sons of senators: ceteris autem at praetexta tantum uterentur indultum, sed usque ad cos quorum parentes eqo stipendia justa eruissent. Macrob Sat 1§§10-12. In the 2nd Punic War concessum ut libertinorum quoque fliii, qui ex juxta dumtaxat matrefamilias nati frussent, togam praetextam et lorum in collo pro bullae decore gestarent.
The Bulla was of Etruscan origin cf Juv. l.c.
Bullae were also worn by generals in their triumph and contained amulets to avert envy Macrob 1.6.9
They were used as charms. Aurum infantibus appli
[Page 2]
-catur, ut minus noceant quae infercintur veneficia (Pliny)
The Bulla was hung up as an offering at the age of 16, on the assumption of the toga virilis, in the same way as girls hung up their pupa on entering womanhood.
[There doesnt seem to have been an item transferred to PRM from OUMNH of this description]
[Page 1]
Cockut Tombeau or Clit... p. 227 [?]
Fibula generally in pairs. [2 words illegible] Saxon Obsequies p. 6 [insert] But at Frilford the male Saxons had no fibulae. & at W... there were 188 Bodies altogether [end insert] 60 out of 125 fibulae were found in pairs     } 30 Bodies
42 [ditto]                                } 14 Bodies
102 of 125 fibulae ... [illegible]
12 only with one only
[Crossed out illegible section] But many from [illegible] have had only a single one; as the saint for the catacombs has only one’ in that a circular [illgible] 1- in [illegible] coins & rings & A.S.
In Pagan Sax... p. 16 & 17 two [illegible] skeletons are described one with a round fibula in shape of flat ring & 2 [illegible] the other had 2 circular fibulae & 2 cruciform
Akerman [illegible] 126 says the circular fibula were [illegible] worn by women only
Bloxham p 50 seems to think the men had no fibulae they ... [illegible] but the women rarely see Weinbold SWW... 1889 p. 189
[There dont appear to be any fibula from OUMNH in PRM either]
[Page 1]
the stone axes of this period at least in Britain were rarely perforated The similarly complete or all but complete absence of Nephrite & Jade [insert] from our British Prehistoric Relics [end insert] implements constitute a fifth point of contrast [section crossed out and illegible] the ethnographical archaeological B... [illegible] [insert] to use the words of Prof H. Fischer [end insert] of which it is impossible to over rate. A sixth point of difference [section crossed out and illegible] as regards [insert] illegible [end insert] the British Prehistoric [illegible] and the Swiss Lake Dwellings lies in the numerical preponderance in the [insert] earlier [end insert] latter of wild animals sixthly are but sparingly represented in early British graves whilst in some of the earliest Swiss Lake Dwelling, they have a [insert] numerical [?] [end insert] [illegible] over the domestic [illegible] But in Early British [section crossed out and illegible] dwellings & excavations as much as those described (Journal Anth Inst vol vi p 20) at Cissbury the difference is by no means so striking [section crossed out and illegible] as regards [insert] illegible [end insert] the [illegible] of our own [illegible] the introduction of the skills for this site occupied by the Lake Dwellers are but few in number [insert] of both stone & Bronze Periods [end insert] and they are all of that large Doli... [illegible] type variety the “[illegible]” of the often referred to “Crema Hibertian” of Hist But.. [illegible] [2 words illegible] in other words so much evidence [insert] in [illegible] [end insert] for the [illegible] [insert] at the commencement of the Bronze Age [end insert] of a fresh [illegible] of [illegible] as are here furnished [illegible] in Great Britain by the [section crossed out and illegible] [insert] preponderant [end insert] appearance [insert] of Bonelyaphlic C.... [?][illegible] [section crossed out and illegible] [insert] contemporaneously [end insert] with metal implements It may however be fairly objected here that this seventh point of difference like indeed all the other six differs simply on negative evidence and that the entire number of [insert] known [end insert] skulls [illegible] from the Lake Dwellings have been as might have been for the very nature of the case expected very small
[Pages 2 and 3 blank]
[Page 4]
Cons Hilv 37 [German sentences that are illegible]
43-44 [ditto]
and so on, ie it is all in German and I can’t read it because it is so scrawly!]

[Transcribed September/ October 2012 by AP]

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