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A full short list of the Tylor correspondence held by the Pitt Rivers Museum is given here. It comprised in 2013

  • twenty-one boxes of material
  • the material includes correspondence, notebooks, loose notes, draft manuscripts, drawings and offprints of articles
  • the papers have been listed

The full list is given below, note the items in bold are most relevant to this project.

Box 1

1-16 Sixteen notebooks (notebooks I-XVI) containing notes made from various books and articles

Box 2

1-16 Sixteen notebooks (notebooks XVII-XXXII) containing notes made from various books and articles

Box 3

1-10 Ten notebooks (notebooks XXXIII – XLII) containing notes made from various books and articles
11 Notebook containing notes from various books and articles
12 Notes on Spiritualism includes four photographs and a compliments slip
13 Sketch book, includes notes and some drawings
14 Sketch book, includes notes and some drawings
15 Small notebook with fastener - notes and drawings
16 Small notebook with fastener - notes and drawings
17 Small notebook with fastener - notes and drawings, including some drawings of hieroglyphs
18 Small thin notebook
19 Small thin notebook
20 Small marbled endpaper notebook
21 Small notebook
22 Small marbled endpaper and cover notebook
23 Small pad with notes

Box 4 – Pamphlets and offprints

1 On the Occurrence of Ground Stone Implements of Australian Type in Tasmania. By Edward B. Tylor, F.R.S. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute Vol. XXIV, May 1895, pp. 336-340 with Plate XVII
2 On American Lot-games, as Evidence of Asiatic Intercourse, before the time of Columbus. By E. B. Tylor. Seperat-Abdruck aus: Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographic, Suppl. zu Bd. IX, 1896, pp. 55-67 with Plate V (colour).
3 Typewritten list of contents of box 4
4 On Traces of the Early Mental Condition of Man. By Edward Burnet Tylor, Esq. Offprint from Proceedings of the Royal Institution, March 15, 1867, pp. 3-11, (2 copies).
5 On the Survival of Savage Thought in Modern Civilisation. By E. B. Tylor Esq. Offprint from Proceedings of the Royal Institution, April 23, 1869, pp. 1-13, (3 copies).
6 An Address delivered to the Anthropological Institute by E. B. Tylor, D.C.L. F.R.S. at the Annual General Meeting on January 27th 1880, pp. 1-15 (3copies).
7 On the Origin of the Plough and Wheel-carriage. By E. B. Tylor Esq., F.R.S., President. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, August 1880, pp. 1-11 (2 copies).
8 Notes on the Asiatic Relations of Polynesian Culture. By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S., V.P.A.I. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute May 1882, pp. 1-5.
9 Old Scandinavian Civilisation among the Modern Esquimaux. By E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute Vol. XIII, February 1884, pp. 1-10 with Plates VI and VII.
10 Address to the Section of Anthropology of the British Association (Montreal 1884). By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. pp.1-12 (3 copies).
11 American Aspects of Anthropology. By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. The Popular Science Monthly, Vol. XXVI, N0. II, December 1884, pp. 152-266.
12 Notes on Powhatan's Mantle, preserved in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. By Dr. Edward B. Tylor. Separat-Abdruck aus: Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographic Bd. I. 1888, pp. 215-217 with Plate XX.
13 A Method of Investigating the Development of Institutions; Applied to Laws of Marriage and Descent. By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, February 1889, pp. 245-269.
14 Notes on the Modern Survival of Ancient Amulets against the Evil Eye. By E. B. Tylor, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., V. P.Anth. Inst. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute August 1889, p. 55.
15 The Philosophy of Religion among the Lower Races of Mankind, by Edward B. Tylor. Read by Professor Huxley at the Ethnological Society of London, Ordinary Meeting, April 26th 1870. The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London, Vol. II, pp. 369-382 (4 copies).
16 Remarks on Japanese Mythodology. By Edward B. Tylor. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, March 1876, pp. 55-60.
17 Ordeals and Oaths, weekly evening meeting of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, Friday April 7, 1876. By Edward Burnett Tylor, Esq. F.R.S., pp. 1-15 (2 copies)
18 Remarks on the Geographical Distribution of Games. By Edward B. Tylor, Esq., F.R.S. President. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, August 1879, pp. 1-8.
19 Address to the Department of Anthropology of the British Association, Sheffield, August 21, 1879. By Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. pp. 1-8.
20 On the Limits of Savage Religion, By Edward B. Tylor. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, February 1892, pp. 283-299 (2 copies)
21 Exhibition of Charms and Amulets. By Dr. E. B. Tylor. Extracted from Transactions of the International Folk-Lore Congress, 1891, pp. 387-394.
22 Anniversary Address delivered at the Annual General Meeting of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland on January 26th, 1892 by Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S., President. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, May 1892, pp. 396-411 (2 copies).
23 Anniversary Address delivered at the Annual General Meeting of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland on January 24th, 1893 by Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S., President. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, May 1893, pp. 376-384.
24 On the Tasmanians as Representatives of Palaeolithic Man. By Edward B. Tylor, Esq., D.C.L. F.R.S., (read March 21st 1893). Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XXIII, November 1898, pp. 141-152 with Plates X and XI (3 copies).
25 Four Huron Wampum Records: a Study of Aboriginal American History and Mnemonic Symbols. By Horatio Hale, M.A. (Harvard), F.R.S. (Canada), with Notes and Addenda by Prof. E. B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Reprinted from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XXVI, February 1897, pp. 221-254, with Plates XI-XIV.
26 On the Survival of Palaeolithic Conditions in Tasmania and Australia with Especial Reference to the Modern Use of Unground Stone Implements in West Australia. By Professor E. B. Tylor, F.R.S. Paper presented to British Association, Bristol, Section of Anthropology, September 9, 1898, 1p. (2 copies).
27 Animism in theory and practice: E. B. Tylor's unpublished 'Notes on ''spiritualism'' '. By George W. Stocking Jr. (University of Chicago). Reprinted from MAN Vol. 6, No. 1, March 1971, pp.88-104. Short letter from George W. Stocking Jr. to Bernard Fagg, Curator of the Pitt Rivers Museum, dated June 10th 1971.

Box 5 – Notes (Manuscript notes for ''New Book'' chapters (unidentified 9/98) and on North America)

1 Ms notes for new book (ff. 1-4), Chapter I - History and Prehistory (ff. 5-13)
2 Chapter II - Eolithic and Palaeolithic ages (ff. 14-22)
3 Chapter III – Magic (ff. 23-25), Chapter IV – Astrology (ff. 26-50)
4 Chapter V – Deluge (ff. 51-59)
5 Chapter VI – Rosary and Prayer Wheel (ff. 60-115)
6 Chapter VII – Games (ff. 116-155)
7 Chapter VIII – Languages (ff. 156-160)
8 Ms Notes on ''North America"" (ff. 161-260)

Box 5A – Notes (Miscellaneous notes on History, Myth and Legend. Miscellaneous correspondence)

1 History in Legend and Myth (ff. 1-76), folio 15 is a letter from E. A. W. Budge. Also bound offprint: The Winged Figures of the Assyrian and other Ancient Monuments, by Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., F.R.S. Reprinted from the ''Proceedings of the Society of Archaeology'', June 1890, pp. 1-11 with Plates I-IV.
2 Oaths and Ordeals (ff. 77-101)
3 Fertilization of Palms (ff. 102-111)
4 Notes for the Chapters (ff. 112-128)
5 Letters and collection of miscellaneous notes (ff. 129-250). F. 129 letter to E. B. Tylor from Le Directeur des Musees Nationaux et de l'Ecole du Louvre, dated 2 Decembre 1897 (letter in French). F. 130 original envelope to f. 129. F. 131 letter to E. B. Tylor from Fairfield, Hitchin, dated 17.VIII.1892. Ff. 132-135 miscellaneous notes. F. 136 letter to E. B. Tylor from Queen's College, Oxford, dated September 10th 1900. Ff. 137-250 various miscellaneous notes.
6 Extracts from published work (ff. 251-255): Ff. 251-252 - Australian Marriage Systems by Andrew Lang from Oxford Magazine October 29th 1902, 2 pages. F. 253 – Die Flutsagen Alterhums under der Naturvolker, von Dr. M. Winternitz. Mittheilungen d. Anthrop. Wien Rd. XXXI, 1904, pp. 305-333. F. 254 - Zum Solutreen von Miskolcz von Otto Herman. Mitteilungen d. Anthrop. Gesellsch. in Wien, Bd. XXXVI, 1906, pp.1-11. F. 255 – The Gods of Northern Buddhism, their history, iconography and progressive evolution through the Northern Buddhist Countries, by A. Getty. (includes Authors Preface (2 pages), also pp. 43 and 54, plus Plates XXVII, X and XX). Ff. 256-262 various notes and drawings.

Box 6 – Notes (Miscellaneous notes on Asia, Australia, Oceania, Africa, Europe and South America. Also on couvade)

1 Australia, ff.1-34.
2 Couvade, ff. 35-57.
3 Malaya, ff. 58-105.
4 Melanesia and Polynesia, ff. 106-139.
5 South America, ff. 140-222.
6 Africa, ff. 223-315.
7 Europe, ff. 316-336.
8 India, ff. 337-415.
9 Asia, ff. 416-471.

Box 7 – Notes (Miscellaneous notes on culture, art, race, language and mythology. Letter from W. S. Ashton to E. S. Hartland 23/08/1902 with ms. notes on Japan)

1 Ff. 1-2 - Letter from W. S. Ashton to E.S. Hartland ff.1-2. Ff. 3 - envelope to ff.1-2. Ff. 4-8 ms notes (? Burial custom in Japan). Ff. 9-16 – page proofs pp. 225-256 Arts of Life, dated 25th August 1880, stamped Clay, Sons & Taylor, Bread Street Hill, E.G. Ff. 17-18 – galley proofs 119-121and 137-139 Arts of Life, dated 14th August 1880, stamped Clay, Sons & Taylor, Bread Street Hill, E.G.
2 Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter I, Man, Ancient and Modern pp. 1-47 also numbered as folios 19-67.
3 Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter III, Races of Mankind, pp. 3 and 49-54 also numbered as folios 68-74.
4 Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter IV, Language pp. 1-22 also numbered as folios 75-97.
5 Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter V, Language continued, pp. 2-26 also numbered as folios 98-122.
6 Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter VIII, Arts of Life, pp. 9-23 and 25-27 also numbered as folios 123-140.
7 Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter IX, Arts of Life continued, pp. 1-31, plus 8 figures also numbered as folios 141-179.
8 Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XI, Arts of Life continued, pp. 9 and 29 also numbered as folios 180-181. Also - Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XI, Arts of Life continued, pp. 25-33 also numbered as folios 182-190.
9 Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XII, Arts of Pleasure, pp. 1-25 also numbered as folios 191-215.
10 Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XIII, Science, pp. 1-26 and 35-43 also numbered as folios 216-250.
11 Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XIV, The Spirit World ''Barbaric Religion'', pp. 1-31 also numbered as folios 251-281.
12 Manuscript for ''Anthropology'' Chapter XV, History and Mythology, pp. 31-34 also numbered as folios 282-285. In addition three unnumbered pages not identified, but re-numbered as folioed 286-288.

Box 8 – Miscellaneous notes

1 1 Notes for “Chapter V – Language and Race”. 16pp.
2 2 Notes for “Chapter VII – Writing”. 14pp.
3 3 Notes for “Chapter VIII – Arts of Life”. 8pp.
4 4 Notes for “Chapter X – Arts of Life (continued)” 9pp.
5 5 Notes on writing and language. 7pp.
6 6 Notes on law and legal systems. 29pp.
7 7 Notes for “On the Origin of the Plough and the Wheel-Carriage”. 12pp.
8 8 Notes on human and animal reasoning. 10pp.
9 9 Thin blue notebook containing pencil notes entitled “Standard Thursday June 30 1887 p.5… A few weeks ago sundry American gentlemen conceived the bold idea of selling a tract of country in Dakota to the English public, under the name of the Harvey Peak Tin Mining Company, for two million pounds…”
10 10 Three pages of loose miscellaneous notes.

Box 8A - Miscellaneous notes, etc.

1 Anthropology Lecture Book. Register of people attending lectures Hilary Term 1884 –Michaelmas Term 1902.
2 On American Lot-Games as Evidence of Asiatic Intercourse, before the time of Columbus by E. B. Tylor. Separat-Abdruck aus: Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographic, Suppl. zu Bd. IX, 1896, pp. 55-67 with plate V (colour) – (2 copies).
3 Manuscript for “Chapter V, The Garden of Eden and the Deluge”
4 Manuscript for “Preface” (Unidentified book).15 pp
5 Manuscript for Introduction (Unidentified book). 15pp
6 Miscellaneous folder, containing: several notes with drawings, also newspaper cutting from The Academy page 37, July 9, 1892, No. 1053
7 Index Notebook. 280 pp

Box 9 – Assorted chapter drafts and notes

1 Chapter V, Regions of the Spirit-World, pp. 1-41 and p. 44. (Stamped received Oxford University Press, 31 July 1901).
2 Chapter ?, Animism and Science, 37 pp
3 Chapter ?, Animism Conduct, 39 pp
4 Chapter ?, Relation of Animism to Mental and Moral Philosophy, 15 pp
5 Unidentified notes (10 sheets, could be continuation of item 4 in box 9?).
6 Unidentified notes. 7 pp
7 Notes entitled ‘Supernatural’ 7pp
8 ‘Moral Political Religious II' dated Feb 4 1901. 24 pp
9 Notes entitled 'Totemism'. 10 pp
10 Notes entitled 'Marriage'. 2 pp
11 Notes entitled 'Parentage' . 5 pp
12 Draft Chapter (?) on Society, Morals, Laws. 8 pp
13 Notes entitled 'Society Morals Law' 5 pp
14 Notes entitled 'Exogamy'. 2 pp
15 Notes entitled 'Determinism'. 20 pp
16 Conclusion of ‘Chapter VI’. 13 pp
17 Letter dated September 30th 1894 from J. Graham Kerr (Christ's College, Cambridge).

Box 10 – Notes and scrapbooks

1 Letters 1890-1894: Letter from G. Lister dated 28 February 1890. Letter from E.A. Wallis Budge dated March 18 1890. Letter dated 3 February 1894 from Rochdale [signature undecipherable]. Letter with envelope dated November 15 1894 from R. Murdoch Smith. Several sheets including drawings dated January 10 1899, possibly from J.P. Mort?
2 Miscellaneous notes on Totemism (26 pp).
3 Memoire (French manuscript, 8 sections sewn together)
4 Notes entitled 'Deluges' (14 pp).
5 Notes entitled 'Rosaries' (4 pp).
6 Notes entitled 'Magical Signs and Formulas' (12 pp)
7 Notes on ‘The Indian Names of the Rosary and their Occurrence, abstract of a paper which is to contain a full treatment of the single pamages, Ernst Leuman. Also: James on Rosaries extracted from Vol. IX Part II of Transactions of Axiatic Society of Japan, Read April 12, 1881, pp. 173-182.
8 Chapter IV – Language (3 pp).
9 Notes entitled 'Melanesia, Fiji, Polynesia and Tahiti' (3 pp).
10 Notes entitled 'Old and the New World' (4 pp).
11 Notes entitled 'Measure, Weight, Force' (5 pp).
12 Chapter ?, History of Games (7 pp).
13 Notes entitled Dakyu-Japanese Polo (2 pp).
14 Notes entitled 'Baleen & Josaphat' (2 pp).
15 Notes entitled 'Anthropology' (1 p).
16 Notes entitled 'Primitive Culture' (8 pp).
17 Animism Chapter (1 p).
18 Newspaper cutting The Inquirer Sept. 23 1871, pp. 605-608, The Inquirer Oct.7 1871, pp. 637-638 and The Inquirer October 14 1871, 649-652.
19 Chapter 'Winged Spirits' (7 pp).
20 Notes on the 'History of Geology' (4 pp).
21 Notes on 'Captured Details’ (1 p).
22 Chapter II – Tasmanians and Australians (4 pp).
23 Lists of Chapter Headings (35 pp),
24 Notes on Relations des Jesuites dans la Nouville-France (5 pp).
25 Notes on Nikola Damascenus (3 pp).
26 List of Lectures with notes (20 pp).
27 Notes on 'Ghosts' (2 pp).
28 Notes on 'Islam' (1 p).
29 Notes on 'Mathematics' (4 pp).
30 Notes on 'Astronomy – Special Points' (1 p).
31 Notes on 'II Association of Ideas' (2 pp).
32 Notes on 'Professor Spencer Account' (1 p).
33 Notes on 'Spencer and Gillen' (3 pp).
34 Notes for 'Eskimo Dictionary' (1 p).
35 Scrapbook containing photographs, tracings, newspaper cuttings and letters from: S.F. Haverfield 26 April 1894, L. Harris 8 September 1891, 3 October 1891 and 18 April 1892, E. Tylor 26 October 1891 and E. Spurrell 2 November 1891.
36 Scrapbook containing, miscellaneous notes, plates, drawings and photographs. Also letters from: W. Lindsay, L. Harris 26 June 1892 and J.E. Corrie 3 December 1909.
37 Folder containing miscellaneous notes (39 pp).

See here for a list of Tylor's correspondence at the PRM

Box 14 – Notes and Correspondence re: Australia

1 Correspondence including MS notes (folios 1-67):
Folio 1 - Letter to Henry Balfour from Hemp dated 26 September 1928.
Folios 2, 3 and 4 – Letter from H.L. Oak (Bancroft Library) dated 2 May 1898.
Folio 5 – Letter from C. Reid dated 22 January 1901.
Item 6 – envelope to E.B. Tylor Esq., from Peking.
Folios 7 -16 - E. Satow, letter and notes on Japanese polo, folios 13 and 16 are scale drawings.
Folio 17 letter from E.B. Tylor dated 22 May 1879.
Folios 18 and 19 – 2 letters from Dorothy Tylor to Mr Balfour dated 18 July 1916 and 10 November 1916.
Folios 20 - 25 – Notes from Louis Tylor dated 20 October 1893.
Folios 26 – 62 – Notes from Tylor's nephew on Bushman paintings. Folio 63 – postcard from Somerlenze, Wells dated 28 July 1880.
Folio 64 – letter from Somerlenze, Wells dated 27 July 1880.
Folio 65 – letter dated 29 August 1887 unable to read signature.
Folio 66 – Unable to decipher letter no date either.
Folio 67 – Letter no signature but from Provincial building Wellington dated 9th December 1886.

Manuscript notes (folios 68-140):
Folios 68 – 104 – Notes – On some religious and totemistic conceptions of the Aranda and Loritja in Central Australia, ? Globus 9 May 1907.
Folio 105 – 110 – Extracts from a letter of Mr. C. Strehlow, Missionary of the New Missionary Society of Dittelsan at Hermannsburg, Finke River, South Australia. 20 December 1901 – typewritten.
Folio 111 – North American Indians.
Folios 112 – 114 – Notes entitled Das Pachis, text in English.
Folios 115 – 119 – Looks like a list of drawing captions.
Folio 120 – Extract from Mehr and Mushtari, how Mehi was playing Chaugan Horse Shinty or Polo.
Folio 121 – 122 – List of Burman Rosaries.
Folio 124 – Possibly a caption for Plate V, signed EBT
Folio 125 – Card looks like a picture caption – The Betrothal of the Virgin after the Fresco Loienzo di Viterbo.
Folio 126 – extract from a letter dated 21 May 1890.
Folio 127 – small scrap of paper - Eye charm from Assiout signed S.M.7 1903.
Folio 128 – small scrap of paper – London Amulet, Alexandria, Modern Arabs, not sure on signature Grevill J. Shuler?
Folio 129 - small note – about a ring from E.B. Lynn (not sure on signature).
Folio 130 – scrap of paper looks like Edward Freen as signature.
Folio 131 – scrap of paper – about an amulet found by K.R. Smith.
Folio 132 – extract from Han-to-shi, published in the 18th century.
Folio 133 – From Wa-Kuns no Shishi (Japanese Dictionary).
Folio 134 – From Rui-KinBanashi, published 1790 A.D.
Folio 135 – pencil notes scribbled on both sides of sheet.
Folio 136 – Notes the history of the reign of Ardasheer Badagan on blue paper.
Folio 137 – handwritten Chapter heading ''Writing'' with some illustrations on page.
Folio 138 – looks like doodling and notes all in pencil.
Folio 139 – Captions for illustration – Spoons of the horse of the Mountain Goat- carved.
Folio 140 – pencil jottings

3 Plates, drawings and photographs (141-195) – no descriptions.
4 Folio 196 - Newspaper page – The Globe, Wednesday, September 7, 1887, pp. 5 – 6, Arrow Throwing – letter by J. H. Teague.
5 Folio 197 – Offprint – Notes on Powhatan's Mantle, reprinted from Separat-Abdruck aus: Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographie bd. I. 1888, pp. 215-217 plus colour Plate XX.

Box 15 – Natural Religion (page and galley proofs)

1 Chapter I – History of the Doctrine of Natural Religion pp. 1-18, page proofs 1st revise stamped 19 December 1899.
2 Chapter II – The Common Relgion of Mankind galley proof stamped 7 April 1900, page proofs not date stamp pp. 19-64 (pp. 49-64 date stamped 1 September 1900)
3 More galley and page proofs a mixture of chapters, date stamped 5 July 1904 and 9 September 1899
4 Hand written copy Arts and Crafts, ? newdate stamped on reverse (printed galley proof), 11 July 1900.
5 A further selection of mixed galley and page proofs.

Box 16 – Notes re: Anthropology, 1892

1 Chapter I. Man Ancient and Modern - Ms 1-26, pp. 1-34.
2 Chapter II. Man and Other Animals – ms 1-24, pp. 35-55.
3 Chapter III. Races of Mankind – ms1-47 (44 is missing) pp. 56-102 (only).
4 Chapter VII. One sheet of text, p.176.
5 Chapter VIII. One sheet tracing of a bullock wagon, p. 199 of text.
6 Chapter X. Arts of Life (continued). ms.10-28 and 30-39, pp. 236-259,
7 Chapter XI. Arts of Life (concluded). ms 1-24, pp. 260-278 (only).

Box 17 – Notes on weapons, tools and religion including Charles Harrison on Haida

1 Correspondence 1899 &1900 (also ms 'Land of the Haidas'' by Charles Harrison, folder, table of contents and pp. 1-48). Letter from Charles Harrison dated 24 May 1899 (1 sheet). Letter from Charles Harrison dated 10 May 1900 (2 sheets). Letter from Edward B. Tylor dated 11 June 1899 (1 sheet). Letter from Edward B. Tylor dated 14 December 1899 (1 sheet). Folder – Land of the Haidas, C. Harrison done for Tylor, ms 1-48.
2 Ms. notes relating to: Healing, Medicine and Death pp. 1-11.
3 Ms. notes relating to: The Americas and American Indians pp. 12-27.
4 Ms. notes relating to: Property, Trading, Gifts and Hospitality pp. 28-39.
5 Ms. notes relating to: Animism and Religion pp. 40-66.
6 Ms. notes relating to: Festivals and Seasons, Arts and Sciences pp. 67-80.
7 Ms. notes relating to: Weapons and Tools – Industrial Arts – Representative Art, miscellaneous, etc. pp. 81-95.

Tylor Papers Tylor correspondence arranged and listed by Elizabeth Edwards, circa 1989.
Correspondence list prepared for web by Sarah Raine, 2008.
Other boxes checked and listed by Derek Stacey, 2008.

The following list was prepared by Alison K. Brown during her research at the Pitt Rivers Museum 16 June 1900:

References in E.B. Tylor Correspondence to objects

probably now in the PRM


G6- T.H. Grose, 09.12.1901, Oxford. Forwards a letter from Henry Wellcome regarding a skull he picked up at the battlefield at Omdurman.

M5 - F. Mennell, 25.11.1904, Bulawayo. Curator of Rhodesia Museum. Responds to Tylor’s letter concerning a Mashukulumbwe head-dress. Encloses photograph.

M7 - A. Moggridge, 03.06.1903, Blantyre, British Central Africa. Sending blacksmiths’ tools, musical instruments and bark cloth to EBT. A colleague is looking for wall paintings in Central Angoniland and will forward results to Moggridge for EBT.

Y8 and Y9 - Y..?, 06.05.1891, Paris. Antiquarian. Sending carved stones and had hoped to send an African drum. Drum was unfortunately damaged beforehand.


Andaman and Nicobar Islands

E.H. Mann correspondence:

1 - 06.06.1891, Surbiton. Concerning a wooden image (Karêau) he has brought to the UK for the Pitt Rivers at Prof. Rolleston’s request. Suggests information for display label.

2 - A. Mann, 30.12.1885, Surbiton. Requests on behalf of E.H. Mann that he be allowed to “complete the collection from the Nicobar group” and that authorities would defray the expenses of freight.

3 - H. Moseley, 02.01.1886 (dated 1885), Oxford to EBT. Concerning financial matters pertaining to PRM and new collections. Too many things from Andamens as it is.

4 - EBT, 02.01.1886, Linden to A.H. Mann. Needs details of specimens E.H. Mann proposes sending. Problem is finding case room, not the money.

5 - EBT, 12.02.1886, to A.H. Mann. The Museum would be glad to receive specimens especially from interior, but not duplicates. Will pay freight costs

6 - 27.10.1886, Nancowry, Nicobar. Sending specimens. Also to Vienna Museum and British Museum. Hopes to have Nicobar MS ready soon. Will need illustrations.

7 - 26.06.1887, Nancowry, Nicobar. Thanking EBT for acknowledgement of specimens. Needs re-copying.

8 - 06.03.1889, Port Blair, Andamans. Sending objects found in kitchen middens: potsherds, mollusc shells and bones.



L5 - Leonard A. Lyall, 21.02.1898, Shanghai. Customs official. Thanking EBT for paper on games. Couldn’t find out the information he required any earlier. Sending Chinese kites. Quotes price as EBT had requested.

L5 - Leonard A. Lyall, 06.05.1899, Shanghai. Customs official. Sending more kites, bought in Japan. Also includes a Chinese charm put over doors at New Year.



A6 - W.G. Aston, 11.04.1884, Nagasaki, Japan. Sending ancient pottery for the museum at request of Chamberlain. Discusses difficulties of acquiring complete pottery figures.

C3 - Basil Chamberlain, 02.02.1884, Tokyo, Japan. Sending polo racket, balls and net.

C4- Basil Chamberlain, 29.02.1884, Tokyo, Japan. Concerning cost of shipping polo racket, balls and net. Also, Haniwa pot and Giogi-Yaki through Mr Aston.

C5- Basil Chamberlain, 10.07.1884, Tokyo, Japan. Glad EBT pleased with polo racket, balls. Further details on polo.

C6- Basil Chamberlain, 01.04.1885, Tokyo, Japan. Sending eleven rosaries and games, including go-board, chess-board, alphabetic cards etc. (List attached to letter).

C7- Basil Chamberlain, 10.10.1885, Tokyo, Japan. Sending a pack of Japanese cards through Mr J.M. James. They are forbidden by Government, hence sending them through a courier.

C8- Basil Chamberlain, 15.11.1888, Tokyo, Japan. At EBT’s request will look for some paper charms. Will not be able to get a sacred fire drill, “quite out of the question.” Sending his friend to meet EBT. William Gowland, a world authority on Japanese archaeology.

I2 - Yaji Ito, 25.02.1880, London. Responding to Tylor’s query about the game “Hon Sgoroka”.

I3 - Yaji Ito, 25.02.1880, London. Has the answer to EBT’s query concerning the game “Hon Sgoroka”. Includes very detailed explanation.

N3 - B. Nanjio, 04.12.1883, Oxford. Has asked a friend in Japan to send polo equipment to EBT.

N5 - B. Nanjio, 16.03.1884, Oxford. Reiterates that his friend (Mr Kando) will bring some Japanese polo equipment to EBT.

N7 - B. Nanjio, 22.04.1885, Oxford. Asks EBT if he ever received the polo equipment. Discusses cost of buying duplicates.

P8 - G. Peek, 04.09.1892, Lyme Regis. Writes to EBT on behalf of W.G. Aston (see above). Aston is dying of TB and would like to donate a composite bow and some Korean pottery to EBT [for the PRM?]. He is preparing a paper on Japanese philology.

L6 - John B. R?, 20.03.1899 to Leonard Lyall [see Chinese correspondence]. Sending Japanese fighting kites with information to Lyall to forward to Tylor. Includes details on costs.


D1 - J.G. Dallas, 25.03.1883, Mussorie, India. Sending the Indian rosaries for worshipping Mahadeo, Kali and Vishnu that he had promised to send EBT.

H12 - J. Holland, 09.01.1891, Devon. Encloses a couple of Jain rosaries which his friend, Chester MacPherson, sent for EBT from Rajkut. They are common cheap things. If they are not right he can get more.

H15 - J.S. Hooker, 08.11.1886, Sunningdale. Will write to Darjeeling for a Jew’s harp for EBT.

J2 - F. Jervis-Smith, 09.03.1904, Darjeeling. Detailed description of the game of Ranee Gutte. More information about his travelling experiences.

R6 - Mme. J. Rigaud, 21.09.undated. Concerns labels and “small pictures by a native of India”. Also, one of “Dr Routh’s wigs” for exhibit.

T2 - Robert Taylor, 26.12.1882. Compares and Indian game to Nine Man’s Morris. Writes following a lecture by EBT.


S3 - William Skeat, 26.01.1899, Cambridge. Concerning possibility of buying specimens during his forthcoming visit to Malaya. Suggests a contribution of £50 to assist with expenses.

S4 - William Skeat, 29.01.1899, Cambridge. Continues discussion of a contribution from Oxford. Also, copy of letter from EBT to Skeat, 01.02.1899. Concerns Oxford’s contribution and the rights of Cambridge and Oxford to specimens collected.

S5 - William Skeat, 06.02.1899, Cambridge. Further discussions concerning funding. Time constraints have complicated matters and he hopes that some return will be made to Oxford. Also, copy of letter from EBT to Vice-Chancellor, 08.02.1899 discussing benefits of collection.

S6 - William Skeat, 04.03.1901, Cambridge. Skeat has put together his notes on the Malay diving rod. Detailed description of use of the rod.

S8 - William Skeat, 08.01.1902, Cambridge. In support of EBT’s conclusions re the difference between the European and Asian diving rod methods. Reference to Andrew Lang.


F9 - Robert Frazer, 22.11.1884, Philadelphia. Sends EBT an Apache fiddle, doll and sticks for game of Tze-tichl. He could not find a flute. Describes rules of game. Says the Apaches “have few objects of interest or value and they have no industries although they make their own waterproof basketwork jars and buckskin pouches leggings etc.” Gives more details of native people and ceremonies etc. he has seen.

M12 - Clarence Moore, 06.02.1898, Philadelphia. Currently doing archaeological research among the sea-islands of South Carolina. Refers to EBT’s paper on lot games and remarks on Stewart Culin’s contributions to the study of Native American games. Will be happy to present copies of his reports on the mounds of Florida and Georgia to the Oxford University library.

R3 - R.R. Redding, 05.01.1882, San Francisco. Congratulating EBT on Anthropology which he has just finished reading. Gives information based on his own observations of Indians of Kern River to contradict EBT’s statement that “only fly-fishing seems not to have been known in ancient times (Chap. 9, p214).” Through his contacts Redding tried to acquire one of their fish hooks and associated information for EBT. Gives details of use of hook. Redding was acquainted with EBT’s nephew.



Boas 3 - 18.04.1889, New York. Presenting a deformed cranium to the PRM. Was unable to get specimens EBT asked for. Will try again.

Boas 8 - 16.01.1890, Worcester, Mass.   George Dawson has sent the boxes with specimens from West Coast of Vancouver Island. Headdress, rattle and mask through to be sent to EBT. Would PRM like a soul catcher? Also, a hook for drawing out illness? Clarifies details of the totemic legends on the spoons he collected for EBT.

Boas 14 - 12.12.1896, New York. Thanking EBT for photo of Haida mask in PRM collection he sent him. Offers suggestions as to its use. Illustrated. Will take the photo with him next time he goes to the NWC. Will also get Indians to identify other pieces in the PRM collection if EBT sends the photos over. Is working on Chilkat blanket designs. Would EBT send him photos of any in the PRM.

Boas 18 - 02.06.1902. Provides information on the Haida mask in PRM collection which EBT had asked about years before. Was made by Charles Edenshaw. A potlatch mask.

Hale 2, 03.04.1896, Clinton, Ontario. Writing in response to EBT who must have been trying to get a wampum belt for the PRM. Wampum can be bought from the Eastern Province Iroquois. Iroquois will use beads (“counterfeit wampum”) and will make any belt if asked. Describes the four belts he has in his possession, which he obtained with considerable trouble and expense 24 years previously from the remnants of the Wyandot Indians in Western Canada. Gives extremely detailed history of belts. Is willing to sell them to the PRM.

Hale 3, 09.04.1896, Clinton, Ontario. Replies to EBT’s of 25.04.1896. The PRM will have the belts and Hale is very pleased to know they will be in capable hands. “I have reason to believe that they compose by far the most important collection of historical belts now held by any individual or society, except only three or four collections retained by Indian tribes, and still used in their public ceremonials.” Hale will gather together all the information on the belts and will send them together with his monograph.

Hale 5 - 28.07.1896, Clinton, Ontario. Is sending the four Huron wampum belts. Also a string of wampum beads. Suggests ways of mounting them.

Hale 5 - 12.11.1896, Clinton, Ontario. Letter dictated by Hale. Replying to EBT’s queries of 28.10.1896. Details on the wampum belts with bibliographic references. Will send some more beads via George Dawson. Sending a photo which shows design details of other wampum. Understands why people may question Indians’ statements that Hiawatha was the maker of wampum. Has reassessed his interpretation of their statement.

Charles Harrison (Box 17) - 24.05.1899. Masset, BC. Answering EBT’s query about totem pole after having shown photo to two “trustworthy chiefs”. Explains crests, following their information. Thinks he will be able to buy another Haida totem pole on EBT’s behalf.

Charles Harrison (Box 17) - 11.06.1899. EBT to Harrison. Concerning the pole that is being negotiated.

Charles Harrison (Box 17) - 14.12.1899. EBT to Harrison. Further correspondence enquiring as to the progress of the purchase of the pole.

Charles Harrison (Box 17) - 10.05.1900. Masset, BC. Totem poles are getting scarce. “Now the time is ripe for National and Private museums to obtain them.” Is still willing to try and get a pole for EBT and to further the aims of the Anthropological Association. “The Smithsonian Institute has had photographers and skeleton hunters here already. In this respect the English Societies are behind the Americans, and allow them to obtain the best specimens”.

H3 - R.H. Hall (HBC), 18.05.1899, Victoria, B.C. Forwarding Agent at Port Simpson’s quote for buying a Totem Pole. “There is no chance to get a photograph of the Pole, but I am told that it is a really good specimen”. Note added by Henry Balfour suggesting that buying the pole without seeing a photos or a sketch would be like buying a “pig in a poke...but a good one is very desirable.”

H4 - R.H. Hall (HBC), 15.11.1900, Victoria, B.C. The Totem Pole has been shipped. Explains how Seattle Totem Pole was erected.

H4A-B - Receipts for totem pole.

H4C-D - Continuing adventures of the totem pole. Seemingly it went astray. Letter from EBT asking for its delivery asap.

H4 - R.H. Hall (HBC), 03.08.1887, Port Simpson, B.C. Concerning details of totem poles. Attached is a letter from James Swan (National Museum) regarding Tsimshian and Haida.

H5 - R.H. Hall (HBC), 15.02.1902, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. Very pleased to receive the photos EBT sent him of the Totem Poles as they stand in the PRM. Refers to an account in The Times about it.

H6 - R.H. Hall (HBC), 28.08.1902, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. More details on the Totem Poles.

John L. Myres, 15.09.1902. Will send EBT a reminder about the Totem-post for Man.


South America

K2 - J. Graham Kerr, 08.05.1895, Cambridge. Answers questions on marriage among the Toba. Refers to strings of Rhea feathers made by Indians of Chaco for sale and are worth very little.

K3 - J. Graham Kerr, 14.05.1895, Cambridge. EBT has clearly asked him to et some things from Chaco Indians. He will pass the request on.

I1 - Everard Im Thurm, 02.03.1889, British Guiana. Writes concerning games. Lists several “novelties” he has come across lately. EBT has clearly asked for specimens. Im Thurm claims that as magistrate he is pretty much kept in the dark but will do what he can. Should be able to get “a good illustrative set of baskets - patterns are not numerous.”



A5 - W.H. Ashby, 28.01.1897, Somerset. On witches ladders as curious relics of an “old-fashioned, and superstitious people.”

B8 - Thomas Brayshaw, 17.10.1887. Settle, Yorkshire. On dart throwing in Yorkshire. Includes sketch.

B10 - Albert Brown, 13.10.1897. Tunbridge Wells. Sending a tip of a tongue. It is a genuine specimen.

H17 - Elsie Howard (EBT’s cousin), 16.04.?, Essex. Sending EBT two potatoes that prevent rheumatism. “They have been carried for more than two years by an old gentleman here, the master of a city company, who has the firmest belief in them, - indeed, I felt rather brutal to accept them, but he said he should begin another one!”

W10 - Horace B. Woodward, 10.12.1872, London. Sends a couple of divining rods cut by a man near Chewton Mendip. “I find they are much more used nowadays than I had any idea of, and even well-educated people believe in them.”


See Westlake Papers for details of stone tools. Tylor appears to have been buying coins for Williams of Brown’s River, who in return has been gathering stone tools.

T7 - F.F. Tuckett, 13.02.1895, Hobart. [Tuckett was apparently EBT’s brother in law]. Reports on various commissions EBT has given him connected with specimens and archives during his trip to NZ and Australia. Discusses his meeting with Williams.

“At Brown River, however, I found Williamson at once. He is a well-known character and dealer in shells, and ancient fish-like articles with smells to match, and has a sort of higgledy piggledy museum in a little shed near the beach, the contents of which he values at £400. This he seems more anxious to get exchanges than to sell for cash. He had a good number of stone implements but, having picked them all [unclear] recently and sent you 180 specimens, there was only one which he thought you would care for and this he let me have. He seemed well pleased with the coins received from you and requested me to ask you whether the parcel referred to would suffice, or whether you could wish him to [? Provide/proceed?] more from the kitchen middens. He would value a copy of your “Anthropology” in the science series, and coins or curios of almost any description. He is a man in humble life, and simple, and modest, and is evidently gratified by his communication with you and your mention of him in your papers, of which he would like to have some more copies. [Two words unclear] I have been to the Exhibition* to see Mr Morton and at last succeeded in running him to earth. He tells me that the 9 volumes of archives are in the library of the Royal Society of Tasmania and that he will communicate with you direct in reference to your suggestion that the Robertson letters should be copied out. He would be grateful if you could send him for the Museum any paleolithic or neolithic English or Continental flint implements.”

* AKB - General Colonial Exhibition in Hobart, Curator of the Museum is Mr Morton - noted from references in the letter.

W8 - W.L. Williamson, 16.10.1894, Hobart. Sends flints to EBT. Tuckett has been supplying other museums with stone tools.

M8 - J.J. Paxton Moir, 7.11.1898, Shot Tower near Hobart. Sends Tasmanian stone tools to EBT. Hopes to send better ones later. Discusses unusual tool he has found with a piece cemented on, “shewing that our Aborigines understood making cement.” Includes sketches. Gives details of this tool and the cement used. Includes newspaper cutting of article by himself, ‘Tasmania and the Paleolithic Age’.

K4 - W.F. Knowles, 18.12.1898, Ballymena. Thanks EBT for the copy of his paper. Notes he can “match all the Tasmania things from my Irish collection”. Explains why this so.

M9 - J.J. Paxton Moir, 03.09.1905, Hobart. Has sent EBT some more stone tools - “a small box, 2lbs by post, containing 20 good and interesting specimens. These alone would be sufficient of the care and skill exercised by some of the Tasmanian aborigines in making their stone implements.” Gives details of one of his own tools and asks if EBT would care to have it. Sends a photo of himself taken on his 52nd birthday by an amateur.

Harrison 1-18, 12.02.1895-21.12.1907, envelopes postmarked Sevenoaks. Series of letters offering a selection of stone tools and eoliths to the Museum. Prices quoted. Details are hard to ascertain as handwriting is very floral! Harrison is clearly in contact with other prominent anthropologists e.g. Lubbock, to whom he has also sold specimens (23.4.1898).



Howitt 1 - 22.10.1881, London. Anna Howitt to EBT. Writes on behalf of her brother: “He has not yet succeeded in obtaining a “[unclear]” for you - but hopes to do so. A word has spread amongst the natives at the knowledge of his search after their mythic implements - and thus, for the time being, none are forthcoming.”

Howitt 2 - 21.11.1881, Sale, Victoria. “Some time ago my sister communicated to me your wish to obtain some examples of the wooden humming instrument called by the Kurnai “Tundun”. I communicated with a number of my correspondents but I regret to say that up to the present time I have only procured one example; or to speak more correctly that one correspondent has provided one example (from Queensland) which is on its way here. He writes me that the Blackfellow who gave it to him earnestly requested him to keep it from the sight of women and children. I have one as used by the Kurnai and I hope to obtain others, but it is no easy matter to get them. If I can be of any service to you in providing any special information which you may be in want of it will afford me much pleasure; I am in communication with over fifty correspondents in various parts of Australia who are more or less successfully working for me and under my direction.”

Howitt 3 - 04.02.1882, Sale, Victoria. Concerning the use of fire-making apparatus. Clearly EBT has been asking Howitt to find someone who can explain how it is used. Also, the “Turndun” Howitt promised EBT has yet to come to hand. Will sooner or later get them for him. Also, message sticks.

Howitt 6 - 23.08.1882, Sale, Gippsland. Is sending some fire drills to EBT. Gives detailed explanation of provenance and use. Asks if EBT if he received his last paper and if it caused some interest. Comments on its publication.

Howitt 7 - 30.12.1882, Sale, Victoria. His sister will settle costs of publishing the paper. Sending EBT another paper on “Some Australian Beliefs”. Asks EBT to present it to the RAI. Asks EBT to order him several other copies of papers he would like. Sending two turnduns, one form Gippsland the other from Queensland. Also a fire drill used by the Melbourne blacks. Gives details. A correspondent is preparing an account of the [sp?] Leaipentaria tribes. Could EBT arrange for it to be presented at the AI.

Howitt 8 - 13.03.1883, Sale, Victoria. A consignment of message sticks and fire drills has been sent off. A third lot will be on its way soon. Still enquiring about message sticks, but comments that the aborigines in Gippsland “do not, nor did they use message sticks so that I am personally unable to do anything.”

Howitt 9 - 13.03.1883, Sale. Howitt pleased to hear the good response to his paper. Hopes his trip to Bega (NSW) will allow him to explain much about the initiation ceremony. Sends another turndun called by the coast Murring -Mudthi - “it was made by one of the principal old men to replace mine which was accidentally destroyed where my messenger’s camp was burned. Please note his own image of Daramulun on it.”

Howitt 10 - 25.06.1883, Sale. Sending several items to EBT including 2 bull roarers, 5 message sticks, message token, net. Gives quite clear provenances and details.

Howitt 11 - 08.08.1883, Sale. Sends a further collection of message sticks (or rather, three message sticks and a message token). Illustrated. Detailed information.

Howitt 14 - 14.04.1889, Sale, Victoria. Is sending two samples of the “Turndun”. Gives other names and details. Also, a “Ggule-wil” - that is one of the things with which the Wininua blacks seeks to bewitch the enemy. Tells EBT what his informant says about them. Detailed explanation.

Howitt - 01.09.1890, Melbourne. EBT has written to Howitt about Tasmanian stone tools. Howitt is delaying his response till he knows whether there is a chance of his being able to give him any details. Howitt has clearly been asking his correspondents about stone tools on EBT’s behalf.

D2 - James Dawson, 21.07.1882, Glasgow. Has read EBT’s review of Australian Aborigines in Nature. Had hoped to be able to fulfil EBT’s request and get information from his aboriginal friends on message sticks.

S15 - Baldwin Spencer, 28.04.1899, Melbourne. “I am sending you for the Pitt Rivers Collection a few of the Churingas of the Arunta tribe. You have not yet I think any of these objects in the Museum. The stone ones are very old. Gillen and myself have a certain number which were secured before we really knew what they meant and how sacred they were in the eyes of the natives. Since we knew this we have not interfered with the churingas.” Talks about how they could have stolen a store of them but didn’t as this would lose them the trust of the natives. Since then, another white man has done exactly this. Thinks he will bring them to England and my try to distribute them, though most likely he will hoard them himself. Brief notes on the work of other anthropologists: Roth, Haddon and Howitt.

S16 - Baldwin Spencer, 05.09.1900, Melbourne. Thanks EBT for the “opportunity of going into the more northern parts of Australia to study the native tribes there”. Gives details of the expedition. Spoke with Howitt recently about chipped stone tools. Must be careful in forming conclusions in regard to them: “The same tribe which makes and uses them in abundance will at the same time make and use both beautifully flaked knives and axes and also ground axes.” Gives further thoughts on use of stone tools. E.g. “The Arunta tribe have both quartzite and diorite and therefore they made chipped, flaked and ground implements. At the present day they have ceased making either flaked or ground implements but they still make chipped stones for ordinary use as for example when they are camped by a water hole and the women (who do not possess iron axes) want to open mussel shells.”...”I do not think that anywhere in Australia there is a really paleolithic people.” Discusses new display of Australian collection - “by means of descriptive labels I have tried to make it a kind of record of the aborigines which the ordinary public can understand and take an interest in. It is quite refreshing to see visitors reading the labels and examining the specimens.”



Fison 8 - 1.3.1881, Fiji - “Your information as to the “bull roarer” in Africa is extremely interesting. It is a valuable fact, for (as far at least as Australia is concerned) it is impossible to maintain for a moment that the instrument could have been introduced by Europeans. I should be glad to hear if the media have taken any notice of the fact that the umbilical cord is not tied. This also is an important fact, though not so from an ethnological point of view.”

Fison 9 - 30.3.1881, Fiji - On bows - “His [Mr G. Stamland Wake] remarks as to the bow being used in these seas more as a plaything than as a deadly weapon, however true it may be with regards to Polynesia, does not apply to the Melanesians. The bow is their weapon par excellence, and deadly shots they are.” Fison goes on to say that from what he has read of Melanesian customs, they are very little understood.

Fison 14 - 12.8.1881, Fiji - Gives a short description with small sketches of kite flying in Rotuma, He gives the native name of the kites - manman = bird.

Fison 21 - 03.03.1882, Fiji - Comments on message sticks concerning their accuracy of markings and misconceptions of their meanings. Also, tells EBT he is looking for a nose flute for him, and comments that they are still in use.

Fison 23 - 18.04.1882, Melbourne - Comments on further effort to get a nose flute for EBT from a friend whom he had given one to. Will get it and send it to EBT.

Fison 24 - 23.08.1882, Melbourne - The nose flute Fison wants to send is damaged, so he is having one made for EBT.

Fison 25 - 03.10.1882, Navulua, Fiji - Is sending a Fijian nose flute. “I got one of my men to play upon it, and he made it discourse eloquent music. But I have to acknowledge that, when I tried my hand, or rather my nostril, upon it, I could extract nothing from it beyond a hollow murmur.” Remarks upon Codrington’s “valuable or at least ingenious suggestion” as to the house mound. Some commentary on cannibalism and the killing of twins in New Britain.

Fison 29 -13.6.1883, Fiji - “A new fact - new to me - came under my notice the other day. I found an old spear with a human thumbnail attached to one to of the barbs, and the natives told me it used to be the custom for a son to thus honour the memory of his dead father. The nail also gave force, speed and accuracy of flight to the weapon. It was a connecting link between it (the spear) and the departed spirit.”

Fison 30 - 26.07.1883, Navulua, Fiji - Glad to hear of EBT’s appointment to the University of Oxford. Is sure EBT will by now have fallen in with Codrington and “be pleased with him.” Comments on language. Resemblance between Tanganyika words and Fijian. Does not wish to imply that there IS any connection between Central Africans and Fijians. Does nothing more than note the similarity but cannot see how it could be accounted for. More details on the nose flute, which seems to have got cracked. The one he will be sent instead Fison “considered inferior to yours and spoilt by the artist’s having written his name upon it - FILIMONE TACIVEITAUA. Will be able to send him a different one without the maker’s mark. Sending another flute that he saw a New Hebrides man blowing at Suva. Gives an account of how he purchased it from its owner. Refers to Howitt’s paper on Australia. Thinks he is doing very well. Has read his account of the initiation at Bega, NSW.

Fison 31 - 17.08.1883, Navulua, Fiji - Has sent a small bamboo box and three fishhooks from San Cristoval acquired through Captain Martin of the Mission schooner “John Hunt”. Fison had promised him they “should be presented to your Museum in his name. When you write next, please devote a small a scrap of paper to an acknowledgement of receipt that I may hand it over to him as a bait to catch more specimens.”

Fison 32 - 30.8.1883, Fiji - “The Nanga trumpet has made its appearance, but I am not pleased with it, and will not send it on. It makes a great and terrible blare, but the artist has done the graven ornamentation so clumsily - or rather he has “slummed” the work as shamefully - that I must get a better one for you. I cannot get any sound out of it, though it roars horribly under native lips. I observed that the blowers keep their cheeks fully distended, and compressed their lips in blowing. Sometimes the air escaped “crepitante” from their lips before the bellow came fly forth.

            This may help you in your endeavours to blow that better trumpet when it reaches you. If you are successful, you will make a sensation at Oxford where the “mournful blast of the barbarous horn” makes itself heard. I brought out a basin of water onto my verandah and tried the effect of it on the trumpet. Wholly emersed as to the open end, no sound at all came out - mere bubblings and liquid upheavals. Half immersed, still no sound. A small portion of the mouth dipped in the water, and the trumpet held with a good start so that the airblast came freely forth, produced a tremulous blare loud enough to call the Nanga spirits from the distant hills.”

Fison 34 - 17.5.1884, Melbourne - Fison has been sent from Fiji to Melbourne and has been suffering from a nervous disorder. “I have heard noting from Fiji about the promised Nanga trumpet. When I had to take my hurried departure I arranged for the transmission of the real article (which was to be made for me) to our missionary at Rewa, and he engaged to forward it to you. I told you in a former letter that the trumpet I had myself received turned out not to be the real thing. The Nanga trumpet is in two parts - one for holding the water and the other, open at both ends, for blowing. The mouthhole is near one end - or rather about one third of the length from the end. The other end is immersed in the water, and the note varied by raising and depressing it. Also, the Mr Turner who promised to send you the small one stringed musical bow with its scrapers of nutleaf ribs has not written to me as he said he would. It is not princes only who are undeserving of faith.”

Fison 37 - 25.3.1887, Melbourne - “[Brown] has a fine collection of weapons etc. which would strain the tenth commandment if you could see them.”...

...”I will write to Fiji for the things you want; but I am not hopeful. As to the tabu signs, they differ very widely. All sorts of things are employed. By the way, I don’t think I noted in any of my letters what Brown told me about the tabu in New Britain. When the people have set up the signs, they immediately take to flight, and hide themselves in the bush. What is the meaning of this? May it not be a possible solution that [unclear] the tabu is a prohibition of a commercial right, and that the natives are afraid, or feign to be afraid, of ancestral wrath? This, of course, is only the suggestion of a bare possibility.

            There will be no need to send any money for the purchase of these Fijian articles. If I can get them at all, I can get them for nothing. [Ú] There is only one place in Fiji (as far as I know) where the surf board is used. Samoa is the place for it. [Ù] the only difficulty here is to get an intermediate agent to trouble himself.”

Fison 47 - 06.12.1894, Melbourne - Having just returned from Oxford...

“My very kind regards to Mr Balfour. I am very sorry indeed that I could not spend three or four days in the Museum. The one occasion on which I visited the galleries transported me into the seventh heaven. I forgot how the time was going, and that I had an appointment with Dr Murray of the big dictionary. That appointment was never kept. I was even unconscious of the pangs of hunger and lost my lunch. I ought to have had a full week in those galleries to say nothing of the ground floor.”

Fison 48 - 05.08.1893, Melbourne - “Allow me to congratulate you most sincerely on the appointment by which your University has honoured herself as well as you. My congratulations come late, but they are most sincere. I am glad also to hear - and I hope the news is true - that Anthropology is now made one of the University courses. It would be very interesting to me, and to others here, if you would tell me something of the arrangement of the course. There are so many books, none of which have been written precisely from the textbook standpoint.”


Middle East

Y7 - Murdoch Smith, 30.09.1887, Edinburgh. [Written on Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art paper]. Acknowledging EBT’s note to Captain Yule about the drawings and the spoons. Murdoch Smith had considered them a present, but EBT wanted to pay. They were a trifle, so Murdoch Smith says he must accept them. Other things were bought in Tehran for the Science and Art Department. Lists more details of objects, including numerous arrows, but he could not get the bow without them.

Y5 - Yule, 19.08.1887, London. Writes concerning Murdoch Smith’s objects collected in Persia. He has handed over to Yule the objects for EBT.



C21 - Miss Curry. Note describing a “Luck’s Plate” from N. Bavaria. “The pattern is hundreds of years old, and has never varied. It is given as a wedding present among the peasants in the country villages.” Note in EBT’s hand, “From Miss Curry.”


V1 - P Vinogradoff, 4.1.1892, Moscow

“My dear Tylor,

Some days ago I sent a fair specimen of a rosary as used by old ritualists and a common prayer book of theirs. Today I enclose an explanation of the rosary which I succeeded in procuring and which will probably whet your curiosity. It is easy reading and you will not find any difficulty, I trust, in making out its sense, [unclear] will help you in case of difficulty. All these objects come from the [Cyrillic’s] Vyezioigvud community of the [Cyrillic’s] Rcheavchaianskii Cemetery in Moscow. These people hold that the hierarchy has fallen into heresy in consequence of the Niconion changes and because it [unclear] the old ritualists.”

Letter concludes with further comments on the monastic community.

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