Larmer Guide 2

There were two different versions of the guide published, this is the second, expanded and presumably later, version. If I am correct then this version was published shortly after General Pitt-Rivers' death in 1900. The description of the King John's House displays only seem to vary with regard to the charges for lunch, the Farnham Museum version describes an additional room and has a few other variations.

A short guide to the Larmer Grounds, Rushmore; King John's House; and the Museum at Farnham, Dorset

by Lt.Gen. Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S., F.S.A.

[The section related to the Larmer Grounds has been omitted]

King John's House, Tollard Royal

King John's House at Tollard Royal is a building of the 13th Century, of which period two characteristic windows with stone seats in them have lately been discovered in the walls. The 13th Century house was of oblong shape, and may be distinguished by the thickness of the walls. The rest of the house is of the Tudor period, and the three oak-panelled rooms are of that date. It contains a series of small and for the most part original pictures, illustrating the history of painting from the earliest times, commencing with Egyptian painting of mummy heads of the 20th and 26th Dynasties, B.C. 1200-528 and one of the 1st Century, A.D. The transition from the round to the flat in the painting is shown by three Graeco-Egyptian mummy paintings of the 2nd or 3rd Century, one of them admirably executed, obtained by Mr Flinders Petrie in Egypt, and an early Greek wall painting.

Passing on to the decline and conventionalization of art in the Middle Ages, the earliest European picture is one of the "Virgin and Child," by Margaritone, of Arezzo in Italy, born 1216, died 1293, and signed by him; followed by several Greek and Byzantine conventional paintings in the same style, which continued in connection with the Greek and Russian Churches until a much later period. The series is continued in the order of dates by S. Memmi, School of Siena , A.D. 1283, and a door of a triptych of the early Italian school. The 15th Century is represented by Giovanni Bellini, Venetian School, signed by him, 1427-1516; "The Holy Family," by Palmezzano, Italian, 1456-1537; "The Virgin and St John," School of Suabia, circa 1460; "The Woman taken in Adultery," on the stair-case by Lucas Cranach, 1472-1553; "The Torments of Hell," over the chimney-piece downstairs, and another of a similar subject by H. Van Aeken, commonly called Jerome Bosch, 1460-1518. Pictures of this kind were much used in those days to frighten people into repentance. Another by the same painter is upstairs, representing the "Dream of St Anthony," and another representing "Orpheus and the Beasts." On the staircase, "A Banker and his Wife," by Quintin Matsys, Flemish, 1466-1531. On the staircase, "The Prodigal Son," by the same painter; "A Lady in the School of Holbein," in the upper room, 1493-1554, and another of the same date in the adjoining room; a "Virgin and Child," of the Italian School; "Modesty and Vanity," by Luini, Italian, 1460-1530; "The Resurrection and Judgment," Italian School, circa 1480. At the foot of the stairs, 'The Crucifixion," by Hans Shaenflein, 1487; "Jesus in the Garden," and another by Hans Burgkmair, 1474-1559. The 16th Century is represented by a "Virgin and Child," School of Sienna, 1500; one by Roselli, School of Florence, 1578-1651; "Paying Tithes," by P. Brueghel the elder, 1530-69; "A Martyrdom," German School circa 1500; a "Descent into Hell," and an "Ascent into Heaven." by Frans Floris, 1517-70; "The Miracle of the Slave" by Tintoretto, 1512-94 (this is believed to be the small picture painted by him in preparation for the large picture at Venice); "The Sacking of a Dutch village," by Alsloot, end of the 16th century. The pictures of the 17th Century include: "A Village Festival," Dutch, by Peter Van Bloemen, 1657-1719; a "Virgin and Child," by C.B. Salvi, called Il Sassiferrato, Italian, 1605-85; "A Skirmish," by Palamedes Stevaerts, 1607-38; "A Dog catching a Heron," by Abraham Hondius, Dutch, 1638-95; a Dutch picture of horses, after Cuyp, 1605-91; "Peasants," by Dirck Stoop, 1610-86; "A Canal Scene in Winter," Dutch, by Van der Heyden, 1637-1712; "The Journey to Emmaus," Italian, style of Gaspard Poussin, 1613-75; "Vandyke when yung," by Peter Tyssens, 1616-83; "A Village Festival," Dutch, by Thomas Van Kessel, 1677-1741. The 18th Century is represented by "A Fish Saleswoman," by G. Morland, English, 1763-1805; two pictures of Hudibras, unknown; "the Repulse of the Dutch at Tilbury in 1667," by A. Ragon. The pictures of the 19th Century include: "The Siege of Pamplona in 1813," by G.C. Morley, 1849; "A Coast Scene," by T.B. Hardy; "Fish, and a Copper Vessel," by Cammile [sic] Muller, 1880. These pictures are hung as much as possible in the order of dates, but the rooms do not admit of the historical arrangement being strictly adhered to.

In the different rooms are also exhibited specimens of various kinds of modern ornamental pottery, in imitation of the mediaeval and early wares, including Martin stone-ware, De Morgan lustre ware, Hispano-Moresque ware, Aller Vale ware, Doulton ware, and modern Nevers ware. Specimens of Tudor embroidery and needlework are exhibited in the upper rooms.

... An illustrated description of King John's House, by General Rivers, is kept on a desk in the lower room. In one of the upper rooms are relics found in the house during the excavations carried on, in, and about it, including a coin of King John, and other objects of the same period. One of the rooms is used as a reading room by the villagers in the winter months.

Luncheon and other refreshments can be obtained at King John's House on applying to the Caretaker, the charges being the same as those at the Larmer Grounds. It is within ten minutes' walk of the Larmer, over park-like grounds from which beautiful views across the Park and distance are obtained.

[A description of the Museum Hotel is omitted]

The Museum at Farnham

The Museum is within five minutes' walk of the hotel, where there is ample accommodation for horses and carriages. The Museum consists of nine rooms and galleries, four of which are 87, 85, 80 and 60 feet long respectively. [Added Note:] A New Gallery, now completed, will entail a rearrangement of the Museum. [end of added note] The side walls are lined with glass cases containing the objects, and the galleries are lighted from above. The centre part of the four principal rooms contains models of excavations conducted by General Rivers in the neighbourhood. No. 1 room contains specimens of peasant costume and personal ornament of different nations. No. 2 room includes peasant carvings, chiefly from Brittany, which were for some time exhibited by General Rivers at South Kensington and Bethnal Green. No. 3 room is devoted to household utensils used by peasants in different countries. In No. 4 room commences a series of ancient and mediaeval pottery of all nations and countries, which continues through rooms Nos. 5 & 6, and is divided under the following heads, viz., Ancient British, Silesian Bronze Age, Etruscan, Swiss Lakes, Cyprian of all ages from Phoenician to Roman, Ancient Greek, Roman, Saxon, and Norman; Mediaeval British, Old English, Scotch, Dutch, German, French and Italian, Spanish, Persian, Rhodian, Anatolian, Chinese, Japanese, Egyptian, Moorish, Cingalese, Indian, Mexican, and Peruvian. The eye, in glancing from one division to another, is able to contrast the various styles prevailing in different periods and countries. Room No. 4 also contains, in the centre, modern brown pottery resembling the ancient, from the West Indies and Hindostan, and a series illustrating the history of primitive locks, keys, and padlocks, showing their gradual development, with a descriptive account of them. No. 5 room contains models of the Romano-British village of Woodcuts, two miles from the Museum, with the relics from the excavations arranged in the cases around; portions of this village are shown in models on a larger scale. This room also contains other antiquities from the neighbourhood. No. 6 room contains models of the Romano-British village of Rotherley, three miles from the Museum, with the relics from it, and models on a larger scale of portions of the village; also models of the excavations made by General Rivers in the Romano-British settlement at Woodyates, about six miles on the road to Salisbury excavated in 1888-90; models of excavations in Bokerly Dyke, and Wansdyke near Devizes. A series in the side cases illustrates briefly the history of stone and bronze implements, and includes the Palaeolithic period, Neolithic period, Bronze age, Iron, Roman, Saxon, and Merovingian periods. The 7th room a series explaining the history of enamelling, including early Egyptian, Roman, Celtic, Saxon, and Volkerwanderung periods; specimens of encaustic tiles, the forerunners of Champlevée, Cloisonné, surface, and translucent enamels, and enamelled pictures and ornaments from China, Japan, Persia, France, Germany, England, Russia, and Algeria, mediaeval and modern. Specimens are also exhibited showing the transition from stone and glass inlaying in ornamentation, to cloisonné enamelling. On the other side of the room are models showing the development of the form of the Christian Cross in Celtic times. The remainder of the side cases are devoted to a series of carvings of different countries, showing the characteristic forms of art prevailing at the various times and places, and including carvings from Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, North and South America, South Africa, India, Burmah, Japan, ancient Egypt, Assyria, Greek, Roman, Cyprian, Etruscan, early Christian, mediaeval, European, Scandinavian, and a series exemplifying the arts of modern times. In the centre of this room are models of tumuli excavated by General Rivers in the neighbourhood, and elsewhere, including some explorations conducted by him in the valley of the Nile. The relics are arranged in cases round the models. The 8th room is devoted to agricultural implements and appliances, and includes a series of querns, a model of an Indian village, models of crofter's houses and sheelings in Scotland, foreign winnowing and other agricultural machines, a series of models of ploughs of different countries, and of country carts, scythes, reaping hooks, spades and textile fabrics from different localities.

The 9th room contains a series illustrating the history of glass-making from the earliest times, including three stages of Egyptian glass (presented by Mr. Petrie), specimens of Phoenician, Greek, Roman, Saxon, Chinese, early and modern Venetian, French, German, and English glass. In the cases on the opposite side are represented drawings and paintings on the flat from different countries, including ancient Egyptian, Phoenician, Cyprian, Japanese, Etruscan, and Greek drawings; also a series of the drawings of savages, and one for comparison, showing the best performances of untaught children and adults from the neighbourhood. This case contains also a series of embroideries, and a collection of lamps and lighting apparatus from different countries.

Every object in the Museum has a large ticket attached to it, and descriptive accounts are added in various places, so that no catalogue is needed. [Added note] A Guide to the Models of the Stone and Bronze Ages have been printed. Price 1s. [end note] The divisions of subjects are marked by thin red satin tapes hanging across the shelves from the top, and the larger divisions are marked by broader red satin bands with the word "Division" embroidered on it. The three 4to. volumes of Excavations by General Rivers, with copious illustrations, are placed on desks in the galleries for the convenience of those who wish to study these several subjects in greater detail than is afforded by the printed headings on the models.

The Museum contains about 270 yards of wall cases, besides the cases in the centre of the rooms. Outside the Museum is a Norse Mill, obtained from the Island of Lewis, on the coast of Scotland, representing the earliest form of water-mill, still used occasionally in parts of Scotland.

The Museum is open every day, Sundays included, and is in charge of a caretaker.

[A note about the Acclimitization of Animals, regarding his menagerie, is excluded]

Transcribed by AP, for the Rethinking Pitt-Rivers project, in March 2011

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